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Evaristo I, Batista D, Correia I, Correia P, Costa R. Chemical profiling of Portuguese Pinus pinea L. nuts. J Sci Food Agric. 2010 Apr 30;90(6):1041-9.
BACKGROUND: The first detailed chemical characterisation of Portuguese pine nut (Pinus pinea L.) is reported concerning proximate composition, fatty acid, mineral and vitamin contents.
RESULTS: Based on the analysis of 27 different populations, pine nuts were characterised by high contents of fat (47.7 g per 100 g dry matter (DM)), protein (33.8 g per 100 g DM) and phosphorus (1130 mg per 100 g DM) and low contents of moisture (5.9 g per 100 g DM) and starch (3.5 g per 100 g DM). They were also found to be a good source of zinc, iron and manganese.
CONCLUSIONS: Mineral composition seemed to be most prone to variation, suggesting its potentially useful role in discriminating Mediterranean pine nuts. A significant variability was found in the nut composition of Portuguese P. pinea populations.