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Mohammadifard N et al Inverse association between the frequency of nut consumption and obesity among Iranian population: Isfahan Healthy Heart Program. Eur J Nutr. 2015 Sep;54(6):925-31.
PURPOSE: Recently, controversies have arisen concerning the association between nut intake and obesity. This study was performed to investigate the relationship between nut consumption and obesity among Iranian adults.
METHODS: In a cross-sectional survey, 9,660 randomly chosen adults aged ≥19 years were selected based on gender, age and their settlement distributions in three districts of central Iran in 2007. Nutritional behaviors including regular intake of walnuts, almonds, pistachios, hazelnuts and sunflower seed were assessed by validated 48-item-food-frequency questionnaire and a 24-h recall questionnaire. Using hierarchical logistic regression test, odds ratio (OR) 95% CI of obesity based on nut consumption was determined in an unadjusted and four adjusted models.
RESULTS: The results showed a significant association between high nut consumption and lower prevalence of overweight or general obesity as well as abdominal obesity in women (p = 0.01 and p = 0.047, respectively), but not men. The frequency of nut consumption was associated with lower risk of overweight or general obesity [OR (95% CI) 0.57 (0.38-0.86)] and abdominal obesity [OR (95% CI) 0.51 (0.28-0.95)] only in women. After adjusting for gender, age and other potential confounders, the strength of the associations was blunted, but they were still significant.
CONCLUSIONS: Frequent nuts and seeds consumption, particularly ≥1 time/day, had an inverse association with all classes of obesity among women.