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Kobler H, Monakhova YB, Kuballa T, Tschiersch C, Vancutsem J, Thielert G, Mohring A, Lachenmeier DW. Nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy and chemometrics to identify pine nuts that cause taste disturbance. J Agric Food Chem. 2011 Jul 13;59(13):6877-81.
Nontargeted 400 MHz (13)C and (1)H nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectroscopy was used in the context of food surveillance to reveal Pinus species whose nuts cause taste disturbance following their consumption, the so-called pine nut syndrome (PNS). Using principal component analysis, three groups of pine nuts were distinguished. PNS-causing products were found in only one of the groups, which however also included some normal products. Sensory analysis was still required to confirm PNS, but NMR allowed the sorting of 53% of 57 samples, which belong to the two groups not containing PNS species. Furthermore, soft independent modeling of class analogy was able to classify the samples between the three groups. NMR spectroscopy was judged as suitable for the screening of pine nuts for PNS. This process may be advantageous as a means of importation control that will allow the identification of samples suitable for direct clearance and those that require further sensory analysis.