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Archive for category Nuts & Diabetes


Nut consumption is associated with lower incidence of type 2 diabetes: The Tehran Lipid and Glucose Study.

Asghari G1, Ghorbani Z2, Mirmiran P3, Azizi F4. Nut consumption is associated with lower incidence of type 2 diabetes: The Tehran Lipid and Glucose Study. Diabetes Metab. 2017 Feb;43(1):18-24. doi: 10.1016/j.diabet.2016.09.008. Epub 2016 Nov 16.

AIM:Nuts are rich in unsaturated fatty acids as well as other bioactive constituents. The present study investigated the association between nut consumption and the incidence of type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) in a Middle Eastern population.

METHODS:The study was conducted within the framework of the Tehran Lipid and Glucose Study (TLGS), in which 1984 participants (920 men and 1064 women) free of DM, aged≥20 years, were followed from phase III (2005-2008) to phase V (2011-2014). Dietary data were obtained from valid and reliable food-frequency questionnaires at baseline. Using multiple logistic regression, odds ratios (ORs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) were calculated, with adjustments for age, gender, BMI, serum cholesterol and triglycerides, smoking and energy intake.

RESULTS: Study participants’ means±SD of age and of BMI were 40.1±13.1 years and 27.0±4.8kg/m2, respectively. The median±SE of their total daily consumption of nuts was 1.19±0.11 servings. After 6.2±0.7 years of follow-up, 150 cases of T2DM were confirmed. On comparing those who consumed ≥4 servings/week with those who consumed <1 serving/week, the age-/energy-adjusted OR of incident T2DM for total nut consumption was 0.64 (95% CI: 0.36-1.12; P for trend = 0.03). In a fully adjusted model, nut consumption was associated with a lower risk of T2DM, and the ORs (95% CIs) of risk for those consuming 2-3.99 and ≥4 servings/week of nuts were 0.51 (0.26-0.97) and 0.47 (0.25-0.90), respectively, compared with those consuming <1 serving/week (P<0.001 for trend).

CONCLUSION: Our findings suggest that consuming ≥4 servings/week of nuts reduced the risk of T2DM compared with <1 serving/week.

Source: https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/27865656

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Association Between Dietary Factors and Mortality From Heart Disease, Stroke, and Type 2 Diabetes in the United States.

Micha R, Peñalvo JL, Cudhea F, Imamura F, Rehm CD, Mozaffarian D. Association Between Dietary Factors and Mortality From Heart Disease, Stroke, and Type 2 Diabetes in the United States.JAMA. 2017 Mar 7;317(9):912-924. doi: 10.1001/jama.2017.0947.

Importance: In the United States, national associations of individual dietary factors with specific cardiometabolic diseases are not well established.

Objective: To estimate associations of intake of 10 specific dietary factors with mortality due to heart disease, stroke, and type 2 diabetes (cardiometabolic mortality) among US adults.

Design, Setting, and Participants: A comparative risk assessment model incorporated data and corresponding uncertainty on population demographics and dietary habits from National Health and Nutrition Examination Surveys (1999-2002: n = 8104; 2009-2012: n = 8516); estimated associations of diet and disease from meta-analyses of prospective studies and clinical trials with validity analyses to assess potential bias; and estimated disease-specific national mortality from the National Center for Health Statistics.

Exposures: Consumption of 10 foods/nutrients associated with cardiometabolic diseases: fruits, vegetables, nuts/seeds, whole grains, unprocessed red meats, processed meats, sugar-sweetened beverages (SSBs), polyunsaturated fats, seafood omega-3 fats, and sodium.

Main Outcomes and Measures: Estimated absolute and percentage mortality due to heart disease, stroke, and type 2 diabetes in 2012. Disease-specific and demographic-specific (age, sex, race, and education) mortality and trends between 2002 and 2012 were also evaluated.

Results: In 2012, 702 308 cardiometabolic deaths occurred in US adults, including 506 100 from heart disease (371 266 coronary heart disease, 35 019 hypertensive heart disease, and 99 815 other cardiovascular disease), 128 294 from stroke (16 125 ischemic, 32 591 hemorrhagic, and 79 578 other), and 67 914 from type 2 diabetes. Of these, an estimated 318 656 (95% uncertainty interval [UI], 306 064-329 755; 45.4%) cardiometabolic deaths per year were associated with suboptimal intakes-48.6% (95% UI, 46.2%-50.9%) of cardiometabolic deaths in men and 41.8% (95% UI, 39.3%-44.2%) in women; 64.2% (95% UI, 60.6%-67.9%) at younger ages (25-34 years) and 35.7% (95% UI, 33.1%-38.1%) at older ages (≥75 years); 53.1% (95% UI, 51.6%-54.8%) among blacks, 50.0% (95% UI, 48.2%-51.8%) among Hispanics, and 42.8% (95% UI, 40.9%-44.5%) among whites; and 46.8% (95% UI, 44.9%-48.7%) among lower-, 45.7% (95% UI, 44.2%-47.4%) among medium-, and 39.1% (95% UI, 37.2%-41.2%) among higher-educated individuals. The largest numbers of estimated diet-related cardiometabolic deaths were related to high sodium (66 508 deaths in 2012; 9.5% of all cardiometabolic deaths), low nuts/seeds (59 374; 8.5%), high processed meats (57 766; 8.2%), low seafood omega-3 fats (54 626; 7.8%), low vegetables (53 410; 7.6%), low fruits (52 547; 7.5%), and high SSBs (51 694; 7.4%). Between 2002 and 2012, population-adjusted US cardiometabolic deaths per year decreased by 26.5%. The greatest decline was associated with insufficient polyunsaturated fats (-20.8% relative change [95% UI, -18.5% to -22.8%]), nuts/seeds (-18.0% [95% UI, -14.6% to -21.0%]), and excess SSBs (-14.5% [95% UI, -12.0% to -16.9%]). The greatest increase was associated with unprocessed red meats (+14.4% [95% UI, 9.1%-19.5%]).

Conclusions and Relevance: Dietary factors were estimated to be associated with a substantial proportion of deaths from heart disease, stroke, and type 2 diabetes. These results should help identify priorities, guide public health planning, and inform strategies to alter dietary habits and improve health.

Source: https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/28267855

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SEPP1 polymorphisms modulate serum glucose and lipid response to Brazil nut supplementation.

Donadio JLS, Rogero MM, Guerra-Shinohara EM, Desmarchelier C, Borel P, Cozzolino SMF. SEPP1 polymorphisms modulate serum glucose and lipid response to Brazil nut supplementation.Eur J Nutr. 2017 May 13. doi: 10.1007/s00394-017-1470-7. [Epub ahead of print]

PURPOSE: The consumption of Brazil nuts has been associated with benefits to lipid metabolism and reductions in total cholesterol and LDL concentrations. They are the richest natural source of selenium which has essential functions in human physiology. Genetic polymorphisms in Selenoprotein P could impair lipid and glucose metabolisms. The aim of this work was to verify the influence of polymorphisms in genes for selenoproteins on blood lipid levels after dietary supplementation with Brazil nuts in healthy adults.

METHODS:The study included 130 healthy volunteers selected at the University of São Paulo, Brazil. They were supplemented with one nut a day for 8 weeks, followed by 8 weeks without intervention. The following analyses were performed: anthropometric measurements, serum fasting glucose, lipid profile, C-reactive protein and plasma MDA levels. The volunteers were genotyped for SNPs rs1050450, rs3811699, rs1800699, rs713041, rs3877899, rs7579, rs34713741, and rs5845 in genes for selenoproteins.

RESULTS: The concentrations of total cholesterol and fasting glucose levels decreased after 8 weeks of supplementation (p < 0.05). Glucose levels were modulated by rs3877899 in SEPP1, with significantly lower levels observed for individuals with the GA + AA genotype (p = 0.025). In addition, rs7579 was associated with cholesterol concentrations, which were significantly lower for individuals with the GG genotype (p = 0.053).

CONCLUSIONS: Supplementation with one Brazil nut a day for 8 weeks reduced total cholesterol and glucose levels. Furthermore, our results suggest that rs3877899 might be associated with glucose concentrations and rs7579 with cholesterol concentrations. Therefore, the effect of genetic variations should be considered in future nutritional interventions evaluating the response to Brazil nut supplementation.

Source: https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/28501922

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Inclusion of walnut in the diets of adults at risk for type 2 diabetes and their dietary pattern changes: a randomized, controlled, cross-over trial.

Njike VY, Yarandi N, Petraro P, Ayettey RG, Treu JA, Katz DL.Inclusion of walnut in the diets of adults at risk for type 2 diabetes and their dietary pattern changes: a randomized, controlled, cross-over trial.BMJ Open Diabetes Res Care. 2016 Oct 19;4(1):e000293. eCollection 2016.

BACKGROUND:

In our recently published study, including walnuts in the diets of adults with prediabetes led to overall improvement in diet quality. This report adds to those study findings by examining the food groups displaced during walnut inclusion in the diets of those adults with prediabetes.

METHODS:

Randomized, controlled, modified Latin square parallel design with 2 treatment arms. The 112 participants (31 men, 81 women) were randomly assigned to a diet with or without dietary counseling to regulate calorie intake in a 1:1 ratio. Within each treatment arm, participants were further randomized to 1 of 2 sequence permutations to receive a walnut-included diet with 56 g (366 kcal) of walnuts per day and a walnut-excluded diet. Participants in the calorie-regulated arm received advice from a dietitian to preserve an isocaloric condition while including walnuts. We analyzed the 12 components of the 2010 Healthy Eating Index to examine dietary pattern changes of study participants.

RESULTS:

Seafood and plant protein foods intake significantly increased with walnut inclusion, compared with their exclusion (2.14±2.06 vs -0.49±2.33; p=0.003). The ingestion of healthful fatty acids also significantly increased with walnut inclusion, compared with their exclusion (1.43±4.53 vs -1.76±4.80; p=0.02). Dairy ingestion increased with walnut inclusion in the calorie-regulated phase, compared with walnut inclusion without calorie regulation (1.06±4.42 vs -2.15±3.64; p=0.02).

CONCLUSIONS:

Our data suggest that walnut inclusion in the diets of adults at risk for diabetes led to an increase in intake of other healthful foods.

Source: https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5073539/

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Effects of pistachios on the lipid/lipoprotein profile, glycemic control, inflammation, and endothelial function in type 2 diabetes: A randomized trial

Reference:

Sauder KA, McCrea CE, Ulbrecht JS, Kris-Etherton PM, West SG. Effects of pistachios on the lipid/lipoprotein profile, glycemic control, inflammation, and endothelial function in type 2 diabetes: A randomized trial. Metabolism. 2015 Nov;64(11):1521-9.


Abstract:

OBJECTIVE: The health benefits of regular nut consumption have been well-documented; however, effects on cardiovascular risk in diabetes are emerging. This study examined the effects of daily pistachio consumption on the lipid/lipoprotein profile, glycemic control, markers of inflammation, and endothelial function in adults with type 2 diabetes.

MATERIALS/METHODS: We enrolled 30 adults (40-74 years) with well-controlled type 2 diabetes (mean glycated hemoglobin 6.2%) in a randomized, crossover, controlled feeding study. After a 2-week run-in period, participants consumed nutritionally-adequate diets with pistachios (contributing 20% of total energy) or without pistachios for 4 weeks each, separated by a 2-week washout. We assessed fasting lipids/lipoproteins, glycemic measures (while fasted and during a 75 g oral glucose tolerance test), inflammatory markers, and endothelial function after each diet period.

RESULTS: Total cholesterol and the ratio of total to HDL cholesterol were significantly lower (p<0.05) following the pistachio diet (4.00 mmol/L and 4.06 mmol/L, respectively) compared to the control diet (4.15 mmol/L and 4.37 mmol/L, respectively). Triglycerides were significantly lower (p=0.003) following the pistachio diet (1.56 mmol/L) compared to the control diet (1.84 mmol/L). There were no treatment differences in fasting glucose and insulin, but fructosamine was significantly lower (p=0.03) following the pistachio diet (228.5 μmol/l) compared to the control diet (233.5 μmol/l). Inflammatory markers and endothelial function were unchanged.

CONCLUSION: Daily pistachio consumption can improve some cardiometabolic risk factors in adults with well-controlled type 2 diabetes. Our findings support recommendations that individuals with diabetes follow healthy dietary patterns that include nuts.

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Effects of pistachios on the lipid/lipoprotein profile, glycemic control, inflammation, and endothelial function in type 2 diabetes: A randomized trial

Reference:

Sauder KA et al. Effects of pistachios on the lipid/lipoprotein profile, glycemic control, inflammation, and endothelial function in type 2 diabetes: A randomized trial. Metabolism. 2015 Nov;64(11):1521-9.


Abstract:

OBJECTIVE: The health benefits of regular nut consumption have been well-documented; however, effects on cardiovascular risk in diabetes are emerging. This study examined the effects of daily pistachio consumption on the lipid/lipoprotein profile, glycemic control, markers of inflammation, and endothelial function in adults with type 2 diabetes.

MATERIALS/METHODS: We enrolled 30 adults (40-74years) with well-controlled type 2 diabetes (mean glycated hemoglobin 6.2%) in a randomized, crossover, controlled feeding study. After a 2-week run-in period, participants consumed nutritionally-adequate diets with pistachios (contributing 20% of total energy) or without pistachios for 4weeks each, separated by a 2-week washout. We assessed fasting lipids/lipoproteins, glycemic measures (while fasted and during a 75g oral glucose tolerance test), inflammatory markers, and endothelial function after each diet period.

RESULTS: Total cholesterol and the ratio of total to HDL cholesterol were significantly lower (p<0.05) following the pistachio diet (4.00mmol/L and 4.06mmol/L, respectively) compared to the control diet (4.15mmol/L and 4.37mmol/L, respectively). Triglycerides were significantly lower (p=0.003) following the pistachio diet (1.56mmol/L) compared to the control diet (1.84mmol/L). There were no treatment differences in fasting glucose and insulin, but fructosamine was significantly lower (p=0.03) following the pistachio diet (228.5μmol/l) compared to the control diet (233.5μmol/l). Inflammatory markers and endothelial function were unchanged.

CONCLUSION: Daily pistachio consumption can improve some cardiometabolic risk factors in adults with well-controlled type 2 diabetes. Our findings support recommendations that individuals with diabetes follow healthy dietary patterns that include nuts.

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Effect of pistachio consumption on plasma lipoprotein subclasses in pre-diabetic subjects

Reference:

Hernández-Alonso P et al. Effect of pistachio consumption on plasma lipoprotein subclasses in pre-diabetic subjects. Nutr Metab Cardiovasc Dis.2015 Apr;25(4):396-402.


Abstract:

BACKGROUND AND AIMS: Nuts have been demonstrated to improve several cardiovascular risk factors and the lipid profile in diabetic and pre-diabetic subjects. However, analysis of conventional serum lipid profiles does not completely explain the atherogenic risk associated with pre-diabetes. We therefore investigated whether chronic consumption of pistachio modifies the lipoprotein subclasses to a healthier profile in pre-diabetic subjects.

METHODS AND RESULTS: Randomized cross-over clinical trial in 54 subjects with pre-diabetes. Subjects consumed a pistachio-supplemented diet (PD, 50% carbohydrates, 33% fat, including 57 g/d of pistachios daily) and a control diet (CD, 55% carbohydrates, 30% fat) for 4 months each, separated by a 2-week wash-out. Diets were isocaloric and matched for protein, fiber and saturated fatty acids. Nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) was performed to determine changes in plasma lipoprotein subclasses. Small low-density lipoprotein particles (sLDL-P) significantly decreased after pistachio consumption compared to the nut-free diet (P = 0.023). The non-high-density lipoprotein particles (non-HDL-P i.e. VLDL-P plus LDL-P) significantly decreased under the PD compared to CD (P = 0.041). The percentage of sHDL-P increased by 2.23% after the PD compared with a reduction of 0.08% after the CD (P = 0.014). Consequently, the overall size of HDL-P significantly decreased in the PD (P = 0.007).

CONCLUSION: Chronic pistachio consumption could modify the lipoprotein particle size and subclass concentrations independently of changes in total plasma lipid profile, which may help to explain the decreased risk of cardiovascular disease and mortality associated with those individuals who frequently consumed nuts.

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Effects of pistachio nut supplementation on blood glucose in patients with type 2 diabetes: a randomized crossover trial

Reference:

Parham M et al. Effects of pistachio nut supplementation on blood glucose in patients with type 2 diabetes: a randomized crossover trial. Rev Diabet Stud. 2014 Summer;11(2):190-6.


Abstract:

BACKGROUND: Diabetes is a chronic, potentially debilitating, and often fatal disease. Dietary strategies to reduce postprandial glycemia are important in the prevention and treatment of diabetes. Nuts are rich in mono- and polyunsaturated fatty acids, which may reduce hyperglycemia and improve metabolism.

OBJECTIVES: To evaluate the effectiveness of pistachio nut supplementation on glycemic and inflammatory measures in patients with type 2 diabetes.

METHODS: In this double-blind, randomized, placebo-controlled, crossover trial, 48 diabetic patients were equally assigned to groups A and B. Patients in group A received a snack of 25 g pistachio nuts twice a day for 12 weeks and group B received a control meal without nuts. After 12 weeks of intervention, the patients had an 8-week washout. Then the groups were displaced, and group B received the same amount of pistachios for 12 weeks.

RESULTS: With respect to the total change in variables over both phases, there was a marked decrease in HbA1c (-0.4%) and fasting blood glucose (FBG) concentrations (-16 mg/dl) in the pistachio group compared with the control group (p ≤ 0.001 for both). There was no overall significant change in BMI, blood pressure, HOMA-IR, and C-reactive protein (CRP) concentrations. Analysis of the two phases separately showed a decrease in FBG by 14 mg/dl and in HbA1c by 0.45% in the treatment group (A) after 12 weeks, while no significant differences were seen in group B (control group). In the second phase, FBG decreased from 151.36 ± 39.22 to 137.28 ± 28.65 mg/dl (-14 mg/dl) and HbA1c decreased from 7.42 ± 0.97 to 7.15 ± 0.68 mg/dl (-0.28%, p = 0.013 and p = 0.033, respectively) in the pistachio group (B). Pistachio consumption reduced systolic blood pressure (p = 0.007), BMI (p = 0.011), and CRP (p = 0.002) in patients from the treatment groups, but not insulin resistance.

CONCLUSIONS: Dietary consumption of pistachio nuts as a snack has beneficial effects on glycemic control, blood pressure, obesity, and inflammation markers in diabetic patients.

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Nut consumption, serum fatty acid profile and estimated coronary heart disease risk in type 2 diabetes

Reference:

Nishi SK et al. Nut consumption, serum fatty acid profile and estimated coronary heart disease risk in type 2 diabetes. Nutr Metab Cardiovasc Dis. 2014 Aug;24(8):845-52.


Abstract:

BACKGROUND AND AIMS: Nut consumption has been associated with decreased risk of coronary heart disease (CHD) and type 2 diabetes which has been largely attributed to their healthy fatty acid profile, yet this has not been ascertained. Therefore, we investigated the effect of nut consumption on serum fatty acid concentrations and how these relate to changes in markers of glycemic control and calculated CHD risk score in type 2 diabetes.

METHODS AND RESULTS: 117 subjects with type 2 diabetes consumed one of three iso-energetic (mean 475 kcal/d) supplements for 12 weeks: 1. full-dose nuts (50-100 g/d); 2. half-dose nuts with half-dose muffins; and 3. full-dose muffins. In this secondary analysis, fatty acid concentrations in the phospholipid, triacylglycerol, free fatty acid, and cholesteryl ester fractions from fasting blood samples obtained at baseline and week 12 were analyzed using thin layer and gas chromatography. Full-dose nut supplementation significantly increased serum oleic acid (OA) and MUFAs compared to the control in the phospholipid fraction (OA: P = 0.036; MUFAs: P = 0.024). Inverse associations were found with changes in CHD risk versus changes in OA and MUFAs in the triacylglycerol (r = -0.256, P = 0.011; r = -0.228, P = 0.024, respectively) and phospholipid (r = -0.278, P = 0.006; r = -0.260, P = 0.010, respectively) fractions. In the cholesteryl ester fraction, change in MUFAs was inversely associated with markers of glycemic control (HbA1c: r = -0.250, P = 0.013; fasting blood glucose: r = -0.395, P < 0.0001).

CONCLUSION: Nut consumption increased OA and MUFA content of the serum phospholipid fraction, which was inversely associated with CHD risk factors and 10-year CHD risk.

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Effect of tree nuts on glycemic control in diabetes: a systematic review and meta-analysis of randomized controlled dietary trials

Reference:

Viguiliouk E et al. Effect of tree nuts on glycemic control in diabetes: a systematic review and meta-analysis of randomized controlled dietary trials. PLoS One. 2014 Jul 30;9(7):e103376.


Abstract:

BACKGROUND: Tree nut consumption has been associated with reduced diabetes risk, however, results from randomized trials on glycemic control have been inconsistent.

OBJECTIVE: To provide better evidence for diabetes guidelines development, we conducted a systematic review and meta-analysis of randomized controlled trials to assess the effects of tree nuts on markers of glycemic control in individuals with diabetes.

DATA SOURCES: MEDLINE, EMBASE, CINAHL, and Cochrane databases through 6 April 2014.

STUDY SELECTION: Randomized controlled trials ≥3 weeks conducted in individuals with diabetes that compare the effect of diets emphasizing tree nuts to isocaloric diets without tree nuts on HbA1c, fasting glucose, fasting insulin, and HOMA-IR.

DATA EXTRACTION AND SYNTHESIS: Two independent reviewer’s extracted relevant data and assessed study quality and risk of bias. Data were pooled by the generic inverse variance method and expressed as mean differences (MD) with 95% CI’s. Heterogeneity was assessed (Cochran Q-statistic) and quantified (I2).

RESULTS: Twelve trials (n = 450) were included. Diets emphasizing tree nuts at a median dose of 56 g/d significantly lowered HbA1c (MD = -0.07% [95% CI:-0.10, -0.03%]; P = 0.0003) and fasting glucose (MD = -0.15 mmol/L [95% CI: -0.27, -0.02 mmol/L]; P = 0.03) compared with control diets. No significant treatment effects were observed for fasting insulin and HOMA-IR, however the direction of effect favoured tree nuts.

LIMITATIONS: Majority of trials were of short duration and poor quality.

CONCLUSIONS: Pooled analyses show that tree nuts improve glycemic control in individuals with type 2 diabetes, supporting their inclusion in a healthy diet. Owing to the uncertainties in our analyses there is a need for longer, higher quality trials with a focus on using nuts to displace high-glycemic index carbohydrates.

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Effect of tree nuts on metabolic syndrome criteria: a systematic review and meta-analysis of randomised controlled trials

Reference:

Blanco Mejia S et al. Effect of tree nuts on metabolic syndrome criteria: a systematic review and meta-analysis of randomised controlled trials. BMJ Open. 2014 Jul 29;4(7):e004660.


Abstract:

OBJECTIVE: To provide a broader evidence summary to inform dietary guidelines of the effect of tree nuts on criteria of the metabolic syndrome (MetS).

DESIGN: We conducted a systematic review and meta-analysis of the effect of tree nuts on criteria of the MetS.

DATA SOURCES: We searched MEDLINE, EMBASE, CINAHL and the Cochrane Library (through 4 April 2014).

ELIGIBILITY CRITERIA FOR SELECTING STUDIES: We included relevant randomised controlled trials (RCTs) of ≥3 weeks reporting at least one criterion of the MetS.

DATA EXTRACTION: Two or more independent reviewers extracted all relevant data. Data were pooled using the generic inverse variance method using random effects models and expressed as mean differences (MD) with 95% CIs. Heterogeneity was assessed by the Cochran Q statistic and quantified by the I(2) statistic. Study quality and risk of bias were assessed.

RESULTS: Eligibility criteria were met by 49 RCTs including 2226 participants who were otherwise healthy or had dyslipidaemia, MetS or type 2 diabetes mellitus. Tree nut interventions lowered triglycerides (MD=-0.06 mmol/L (95% CI -0.09 to -0.03 mmol/L)) and fasting blood glucose (MD=-0.08 mmol/L (95% CI -0.16 to -0.01 mmol/L)) compared with control diet interventions. There was no effect on waist circumference, high-density lipoprotein cholesterol or blood pressure with the direction of effect favouring tree nuts for waist circumference. There was evidence of significant unexplained heterogeneity in all analyses (p<0.05).

CONCLUSIONS: Pooled analyses show a MetS benefit of tree nuts through modest decreases in triglycerides and fasting blood glucose with no adverse effects on other criteria across nut types. As our conclusions are limited by the short duration and poor quality of the majority of trials, as well as significant unexplained between-study heterogeneity, there remains a need for larger, longer, high-quality trials.

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Pistachio nut consumption modifies systemic hemodynamics, increases heart rate variability, and reduces ambulatory blood pressure in well-controlled type 2 diabetes: a randomized trial

Reference:

Sauder KA etal Pistachio nut consumption modifies systemic hemodynamics, increases heart rate variability, and reduces ambulatory blood pressure in well-controlled type 2 diabetes: a randomized trial. J Am Heart Assoc. 2014 Jun 30;3(4). pii: e000873.


Abstract:

BACKGROUND: Managing cardiovascular risk factors is important for reducing vascular complications in type 2 diabetes, even in individuals who have achieved glycemic control. Nut consumption is associated with reduced cardiovascular risk; however, there is mixed evidence about the effect of nuts on blood pressure (BP), and limited research on the underlying hemodynamics. This study assessed the effect of pistachio consumption on BP, systemic hemodynamics, and heart rate variability in adults with well-controlled type 2 diabetes.

METHODS AND RESULTS: We enrolled 30 adults (40 to 74 years) with type 2 diabetes in a randomized, crossover, controlled feeding study. After a 2-week run-in period, participants consumed a low-fat control diet (27% fat) containing low-fat/high-carbohydrate snacks and a moderate-fat diet (33% fat) containing pistachios (20% of total energy) for 4 weeks each, separated by a 2-week washout. Following each diet period, we assessed BP, systemic hemodynamics, and heart rate variability at rest and during acute mental stress, and, in a subset of participants (n=21), 24-hour ambulatory BP. BP at rest and during stress did not differ between treatments. The pistachio diet significantly reduced total peripheral resistance (-3.7±2.9%, P=0.004), increased cardiac output (3.1±2.3%, P=0.002), and improved some measures of heart rate variability (all P<0.05). Systolic ambulatory BP was significantly reduced by 3.5±2.2 mm Hg (P=0.046) following the pistachio diet, with the greatest reduction observed during sleep (-5.7±2.6 mm Hg, P=0.052).

CONCLUSIONS: A moderate-fat diet containing pistachios modestly improves some cardiovascular risk factors in adults with well-controlled type 2 diabetes.

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Nuts in the prevention and treatment of metabolic syndrome

Reference:

Salas-Salvadó J, Guasch-Ferré M, Bulló M, Sabaté J.Nuts in the prevention and treatment of metabolic syndrome. Am J Clin Nutr. 2014 Jun 4. pii: ajcn.071530. [Epub ahead of print]


Abstract:

Nuts are rich in many bioactive compounds that can exert beneficial effects on cardiovascular health. We reviewed the evidence relating nut consumption and the metabolic syndrome (MetS) and its components. Nuts reduce the postprandial glycemic response; however, long-term trials of nuts on insulin resistance and glycemic control in diabetic individuals are inconsistent. Epidemiologic studies have shown that nuts may lower the risk of diabetes incidence in women. Few studies have assessed the association between nuts and abdominal obesity, although an inverse association with body mass index and general obesity has been observed. Limited evidence suggests that nuts have a protective effect on blood pressure and endothelial function. Nuts have a cholesterol-lowering effect, but the relation between nuts and hypertriglyceridemia and high-density lipoprotein cholesterol is not well established. A recent pooled analysis of clinical trials showed that nuts are inversely related to triglyceride concentrations only in subjects with hypertriglyceridemia. An inverse association was found between the frequency of nut consumption and the prevalence and the incidence of MetS. Several trials evaluated the effect of nuts on subjects with MetS and found that they may have benefits in some components. Compared with a low-fat diet, a Mediterranean diet enriched with nuts could be beneficial for MetS management. The protective effects on metabolism could be explained by the modulation of inflammation and oxidation. Further trials are needed to clarify the role of nuts in MetS prevention and treatment.

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Effects of pistachio nuts on body composition, metabolic, inflammatory and oxidative stress parameters in Asian Indians with metabolic syndrome: a 24-wk, randomized control trial

Reference:

Gulati S, Misra A, Pandey RM, Bhatt SP, Saluja S.Effects of pistachio nuts on body composition, metabolic, inflammatory and oxidative stress parameters in Asian Indians with metabolic syndrome: a 24-wk, randomized control trial. Nutrition. 2014 Feb;30(2):192-7.


Abstract:

OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study was to evaluate the effects of pistachio nuts as an adjunct to diet and exercise on body composition, metabolic, inflammatory, and oxidative stress parameters in Asian Indians with metabolic syndrome.

METHODS: In this 24-wk randomized control trial, 60 individuals with the metabolic syndrome were randomized to either pistachio (intervention group) or control group (diet as per weight and physical activity profile, modulated according to dietary guidelines for Asian Indians) after 3 wk of a diet and exercise run in. In the first group, unsalted pistachios (20% energy) were given daily. A standard diet and exercise protocol was followed for both groups. Body weight, waist circumference (WC), magnetic resonance imaging estimation of intraabdominal adipose tissue and subcutaneous abdominal adipose tissue, fasting blood glucose (FBG), fasting serum insulin, glycosylated hemoglobin, lipid profile, high-sensitivity C-reactive protein (hs-CRP), adiponectin, free fatty acids (FFAs), tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-α, leptin, and thiobarbituric acid reactive substances (TBARS) were assessed before and after the intervention.

RESULTS: Statistically significant improvement in mean values for various parameters in the intervention group compared with control group were as follows: WC (P < 0.02), FBG (P < 0.04), total cholesterol (P < 0.02), low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (P < 0.006), hs-CRP (P < 0.05), TNF-α (P < 0.03), FFAs (P < 0.001), TBARS (P < 0.01), and adiponectin levels (P < 0.001). CONCLUSION: A single food intervention with pistachios leads to beneficial effects on the cardiometabolic profile of Asian Indians with metabolic syndrome.

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Nut consumption, serum fatty acid profile and estimated coronary heart disease risk in type 2 diabetes.

Reference:

Nishi SK, Kendall CW, Bazinet RP, Bashyam B, Ireland CA, Augustin LS, Blanco Mejia S, Sievenpiper JL, Jenkins DJ. Nut consumption, serum fatty acid profile and estimated coronary heart disease risk in type 2 diabetes. Nutr Metab Cardiovasc Dis. 2014 May 13. pii: S0939-4753(14)00131-8. doi: 10.1016/j.numecd.2014.04.001. [Epub ahead of print]


Abstract:

BACKGROUND AND AIMS: Nut consumption has been associated with decreased risk of coronary heart disease (CHD) and type 2 diabetes which has been largely attributed to their healthy fatty acid profile, yet this has not been ascertained. Therefore, we investigated the effect of nut consumption on serum fatty acid concentrations and how these relate to changes in markers of glycemic control and calculated CHD risk score in type 2 diabetes.

METHODS AND RESULTS: 117 subjects with type 2 diabetes consumed one of three iso-energetic (mean 475 kcal/d) supplements for 12 weeks: 1. full-dose nuts (50-100 g/d); 2. half-dose nuts with half-dose muffins; and 3. full-dose muffins. In this secondary analysis, fatty acid concentrations in the phospholipid, triacylglycerol, free fatty acid, and cholesteryl ester fractions from fasting blood samples obtained at baseline and week 12 were analyzed using thin layer and gas chromatography. Full-dose nut supplementation significantly increased serum oleic acid (OA) and MUFAs compared to the control in the phospholipid fraction (OA: P = 0.036; MUFAs: P = 0.024). Inverse associations were found with changes in CHD risk versus changes in OA and MUFAs in the triacylglycerol (r = -0.256, P = 0.011; r = -0.228, P = 0.024, respectively) and phospholipid (r = -0.278, P = 0.006; r = -0.260, P = 0.010, respectively) fractions. In the cholesteryl ester fraction, change in MUFAs was inversely associated with markers of glycemic control (HbA1c: r = -0.250, P = 0.013; fasting blood glucose: r = -0.395, P < 0.0001). CONCLUSION: Nut consumption increased OA and MUFA content of the serum phospholipid fraction, which was inversely associated with CHD risk factors and 10-year CHD risk.

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Acute effects of pistachio consumption on glucose and insulin, satiety hormones and endothelial function in the metabolic syndrome

Reference:

Kendall CW, West SG, Augustin LS, Esfahani A, Vidgen E, Bashyam B, Sauder KA, Campbell J, Chiavaroli L, Jenkins AL, Jenkins DJ. Acute effects of pistachio consumption on glucose and insulin, satiety hormones and endothelial function in the metabolic syndrome. Eur J Clin Nutr. 2014 Jan 15. doi: 10.1038/ejcn.2013.275. [Epub ahead of print]


Abstract:

Background/Objective:Nut consumption has been found to decrease risk of coronary heart disease and diabetes and to promote healthy body weights possibly related to their favorable macronutrient profile. We therefore assessed the effect of pistachios on postprandial glucose and insulin levels, gut hormones related to satiety and endothelial function.

Subjects/Methods:In this randomized crossover study, 20 subjects with metabolic syndrome consumed five study meals over 5-10 weeks. The meals differed in fat type and quantity, but were matched according to available carbohydrates (CHOs). Three meals had 50 g available CHO: white bread (WB50g), white bread, butter and cheese (WB+B+Ch) and white bread and pistachios (WB+P). Two meals had 12 g available CHO: white bread (WB12g) and pistachios (P).

Results:Within each group of available CHO meals, postprandial glucose levels were the highest following the white bread-only meals, and glucose response was significantly attenuated when butter and cheese or pistachios were consumed (P<0.05). Postprandial insulin levels were highest after the WB+B+Ch meal (P<0.05), but did not differ between the white bread-only and pistachio meals. Both endothelial function (reactive hyperemia index) and arterial stiffness (augmentation index) significantly increased after the white bread-only meals compared with the WB+B+Ch meal (all P<0.05). Insulin secretagogue levels were higher when butter and cheese or pistachios were consumed than when white bread only was consumed (P<0.05). Conclusions:Compared with white bread, pistachio consumption reduced postprandial glycemia, increased glucagon-like-peptide levels and may have insulin-sparing properties. These effects could be beneficial for individuals with diabetes and metabolic syndrome.

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Tree nuts are inversely associated with metabolic syndrome and obesity: the adventist health study-2

Reference:

Jaceldo-Siegl K, Haddad E, Oda K, Fraser GE, Sabaté J Tree nuts are inversely associated with metabolic syndrome and obesity: the adventist health study-2. PLoS One. 2014 Jan 8;9(1):e85133.


Abstract:

OBJECTIVE: To examine the relationships of nut consumption, metabolic syndrome (MetS), and obesity in the Adventist Health Study-2, a relatively healthy population with a wide range of nut intake.

RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS: Cross-sectional analysis was conducted on clinical, dietary, anthropometric, and demographic data of 803 adults. MetS was defined according to the American Heart Association and the National Heart, Lung, and Blood Institute diagnostic criteria. We assessed intake of total nuts, tree nuts and peanuts, and also classified subjects into low tree nut/low peanut (LT/LP), low tree/high peanut (LT/HP), high tree nut/high peanut (HT/HP), and high tree/low peanut (HT/LP) consumers. Odds ratios were estimated using multivariable logistic regression.

RESULTS: 32% of subjects had MetS. Compared to LT/LP consumers, obesity was lower in LT/HP (OR = 0.89; 95% CI = 0.53, 1.48), HT/HP (OR = 0.63; 95% CI = 0.40, 0.99) and HT/LP (OR = 0.54; 95% CI = 0.34, 0.88) consumers, p for trend = 0.006. For MetS, odds ratios (95% CI) were 0.77 (0.47, 1.28), 0.65 (0.42, 1.00) and 0.68 (0.43, 1.07), respectively (p for trend = 0.056). Frequency of nut intake (once/week) had significant inverse associations with MetS (3% less for tree nuts and 2% less for total nuts) and obesity (7% less for tree nuts and 3% less for total nuts).

CONCLUSIONS: Tree nuts appear to have strong inverse association with obesity, and favorable though weaker association with MetS independent of demographic, lifestyle and dietary factors.

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Prepregnancy dietary protein intake, major dietary protein sources, and the risk of gestational diabetes mellitus: a prospective cohort study

Reference:

Bao W, Bowers K, Tobias DK, Hu FB, Zhang C. Prepregnancy dietary protein intake, major dietary protein sources, and the risk of gestational diabetes mellitus: a prospective cohort study. Diabetes Care. 2013 Jul;36(7):2001-8.


Abstract:

OBJECTIVE: Dietary protein is an important modulator of glucose metabolism. However, studies regarding the association between dietary protein intake and gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM) risk are sparse. This study was to examine the association.

RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS: Our study included 21,457 singleton pregnancies reported among 15,294 participants of the Nurses’ Health Study II cohort between 1991 and 2001. Included pregnancies were free of chronic diseases before pregnancy or previous GDM. Generalized estimating equations were used to estimate the relative risks (RRs) and 95% CIs.

RESULTS: After adjustment for age, parity, nondietary and dietary factors, and BMI, multivariable RRs (95% CIs) comparing the highest with lowest quintiles were 1.49 (1.03-2.17) for animal protein intake and 0.69 (0.50-0.97) for vegetable protein intake. The substitution of 5% energy from vegetable protein for animal protein was associated with a 51% lower risk of GDM (RR [95% CI], 0.49 [0.29-0.84]). For major dietary protein sources, multivariable RRs (95% CIs) comparing the highest with the lowest quintiles were 2.05 (1.55-2.73) for total red meat and 0.73 (0.56-0.95) for nuts, respectively. The substitution of red meat with poultry, fish, nuts, or legumes showed a significantly lower risk of GDM.

CONCLUSIONS: Higher intake of animal protein, in particular red meat, was significantly associated with a greater risk of GDM. By contrast, higher intake of vegetable protein, specifically nuts, was associated with a significantly lower risk. Substitution of vegetable protein for animal protein, as well as substitution of some healthy protein sources for red meat, was associated with a lower risk of GDM.

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Walnut consumption is associated with lower risk of type 2 diabetes in women

Reference:

Martínez-González MA, Bes-Rastrollo M. Nut consumption, weight gain and obesity: Epidemiological evidence. Nutr Metab Cardiovasc Dis. 2011 Jun;21 Suppl 1:S40-5.


Abstract:

BACKGROUND AND AIMS: Short-term trials support that adding tree nuts or peanuts to usual diets does not induce weight gain. We reviewed the available epidemiological evidence on long-term nut consumption and body weight changes. We also report new results from the SUN (“Seguimiento Universidad de Navarra”) cohort.

METHODS AND RESULTS: Published epidemiologic studies with ≥1-yr follow-up were located. Two published reports from large cohorts (SUN and Nurses Health Study-2) showed inverse associations between frequency of nut consumption and long-term weight changes. A beneficial effect of a Mediterranean diet supplemented with tree nuts on waist circumference was reported after 1-yr follow-up in the first 1224 high-risk participants in the PREDIMED (“PREvencion DIeta MEDiterranea”) trial. After assessing 11,895 participants of the SUN cohort, a borderline significant (p value for trend = 0.09) inverse association between baseline nut consumption and average yearly weight gain (multivariate-adjusted means = 0.32 kg/yr (95% confidence interval: 0.22-0.42) and 0.24 (0.11-0.37) kg/yr for participants with no consumption and >4 servings/week, respectively) was found after a 6-yr follow-up.

CONCLUSIONS: Consumption of nuts was not associated with a higher risk of weight gain in long-term epidemiologic studies and clinical trials.

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The effect of almonds on inflammation and oxidative stress in Chinese patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus: a randomized crossover controlled feeding trial

Reference:

Liu JF, Liu YH, Chen CM, Chang WH, Chen CY. The effect of almonds on inflammation and oxidative stress in Chinese patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus: a randomized crossover controlled feeding trial. Eur J Nutr. 2013 Apr;52(3):927-35.


Abstract:

PURPOSE: Almond consumption is associated with ameliorations in obesity, hyperlipidemia, hypertension, and hyperglycemia. The hypothesis of this 12-week randomized, crossover, controlled feeding trial was that almond consumption would ameliorate inflammation and oxidative stress in Chinese patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) (9 M, 11 F; 58 years; BMI: 26 kg/m²) with mild hyperlipidemia.

METHODS: After a 2-week run-in period, the patients were assigned to either a control NCEP step II diet (control diet) or almond diet for 4 weeks with a 2-week washout period between alternative diets. Almonds approximately at 56 g/day were added to the control diet to replace 20 % of total daily calorie intake.

RESULTS: As compared to the control diet, the almond diet decreased IL-6 by a median 10.3 % (95 % confidence intervals 5.2, 12.6 %), CRP by a median 10.3 % (-24.1, 40.5), and TNF-α by a median 15.7 % (-0.3, 29.9). The almond diet also decreased plasma protein carbonyl by a median 28.2 % (4.7, 38.2) as compared to the C diet but did not alter plasma malondialdehyde. The A diet enhanced the resistance of LDL against Cu²⁺-induced oxidation by a median 16.3 % (7.4, 44.3) as compared to the C diet. Serum intercellular adhesion molecule-1 and vascular adhesion molecule-1 were not changed by both diets.

CONCLUSIONS: Our results suggested that incorporation of almonds into a healthy diet could ameliorate inflammation and oxidative stress in patients with T2DM.

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Effects of hazelnuts consumption on fasting blood sugar and lipoproteins in patients with type 2 diabetes

Reference:

Damavandi RD, Eghtesadi S, Shidfar F, Heydari I, Foroushani AR. Effects of hazelnuts consumption on fasting blood sugar and lipoproteins in patients with type 2 diabetes. J Res Med Sci. 2013 Apr;18(4):314-21.


Abstract:

BACKGROUND: Previous studies have demonstrated that nuts consumption have beneficial effects on serum lipid profiles in hyperlipidemic or normolipidemic subjects. However, similar studies in diabetes field are quite rare. So, we aimed to investigate the effects of hazelnut consumption on fasting blood sugar (FBS) and lipid profiles in patients with type 2 Diabetes.

MATERIALS AND METHODS: An 8-week controlled randomized parallel study in patients with type 2 diabetes. Fifty eligible volunteers were assigned to either the control or intervention groups. 10% of total daily calorie intake was replaced with hazelnuts in intervention group. Blood samples were collected from fasting patients at the start and at the end of the study.

RESULTS: After 8 weeks, there were significant differences in high-density lipoprotein-cholesterol (HDL-C) concentrations between two groups, using analyses of covariance (P = 0.009), which was due to the larger HDL-C reduction in control group (P = 0.003). Although, Hazelnut group achieved greater reduction in triglyceride (TG) concentrations than control group, these changes were not statistically significant. Neither between-group changes nor within-group changes were significant for FBS, total cholesterol (TC), TG, and low-density lipoprotein-cholesterol (LDL-C) levels.

CONCLUSION: Results of this study indicated that incorporation of hazelnuts into diet can prevent reduction of HDL-C concentrations in patients with type 2 diabetes, but had no effect on FBS or other lipid profile indices.

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Effect of low-glycemic load diet on changes in cardiovascular risk factors in poorly controlled diabetic patients

Reference:

Afaghi A, Ziaee A, Afaghi M. Effect of low-glycemic load diet on changes in cardiovascular risk factors in poorly controlled diabetic patients. Indian J Endocrinol Metab. 2012 Nov;16(6):991-5.


Abstract:

BACKGROUND: One dietary strategy aimed at improving both diabetes control and control of cardiovascular risk factors is the use of low glycemic index diets. These diets have been reported to be beneficial in controlling diabetes, and also increase high density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C), lower serum triglyceride, and reduce glycated protein. AIM: Therefore, we aimed to investigate the effect of a low glycemic index-low glycemic load (GL = 67-77) diet on lipids and blood glucose of poorly controlled diabetic patients.

MATERIALS AND METHODS: In an intervention study, 100 poorly controlled diabetic patients (age 52.8 ± 4.5 years) who were taking insulin or on oral medication underwent administration of low GL diet (GL = 67-77; energy = 1800-2200 kcal, total fat = 36%, fat derived from olive oil and nuts 15%, carbohydrate = 41%, protein = 22%) for 10 weeks. Patients were recommended to follow their regular lifestyle. Total cholesterol, low density lipoprotein (LDL), HDL, triglyceride, glycated hemoglobin (HbA1c), weight, and body mass index (BMI) were measured before and 10 weeks after the intervention.

RESULTS: Before intervention, initial blood cholesterol and triglyceride concentrations were 205.9 ± 21.6 and 181.5 ± 22.2, respectively, and were reduced to 182.6 ± 18.2 and 161.6 ± 16.7, respectively, after 10 weeks intervention (P < 0.001). LDL reduced and HDL increased significantly. The HbA1c percentage reduced by 12% (from 8.85 ± 0.22% to 7.81 ± 0.27%) (P < 0.001), and also their weight significantly reduced from 74.0 ± 5 kg to 70.7 ± 4.6 kg (P < 0.001). CONCLUSION: This study demonstrated that low GL diet having lower carbohydrate amount and higher fat content is an appropriate strategy in blood lipid and glucose response control of poorly controlled diabetic patients.

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Postpartum diet quality in Australian women following a gestational diabetes pregnancy

Reference:

Morrison MK, Koh D, Lowe JM, Miller YD, Marshall AL, Colyvas K, Collins CE. Postpartum diet quality in Australian women following a gestational diabetes pregnancy. Eur J Clin Nutr. 2012 Oct;66(10):1160-5.


Abstract:

BACKGROUND/OBJECTIVES: To describe the diet quality of a national sample of Australian women with a recent history of gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM) and determine factors associated with adherence to national dietary recommendations.

SUBJECTS/METHODS: A postpartum lifestyle survey with 1499 Australian women diagnosed with GDM ≤3 years previously. Diet quality was measured using the Australian recommended food score (ARFS) and weighted by demographic and diabetes management characteristics. Multinominal logistic regression analysis was used to determine the association between diet quality and demographic characteristics, health seeking behaviours and diabetes-related risk factors.

RESULTS: Mean (±s.d.) ARFS was 30.9±8.1 from a possible maximum score of 74. Subscale component scores demonstrated that the nuts/legumes, grains and fruits were the most poorly scored. Factors associated with being in the highest compared with the lowest ARFS quintile included age (odds ratio (OR) 5-year increase=1.40; 95% (confidence interval) CI:1.16-1.68), tertiary education (OR=2.19; 95% CI:1.52-3.17), speaking only English (OR=1.92; 95% CI:1.19-3.08), being sufficiently physically active (OR=2.11; 95% CI:1.46-3.05), returning for postpartum blood glucose testing (OR=1.75; 95% CI:1.23-2.50) and receiving risk reduction advice from a health professional (OR=1.80; 95% CI:1.24-2.60).

CONCLUSIONS: Despite an increased risk of type 2 diabetes, women in this study had an overall poor diet quality as measured by the ARFS. Women with GDM should be targeted for interventions aimed at achieving a postpartum diet consistent with the guidelines for chronic disease prevention. Encouraging women to return for follow-up and providing risk reduction advice may be positive initial steps to improve diet quality, but additional strategies need to be identified.

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What dietary modification best improves insulin sensitivity and why?

Reference:

Weickert MO. What dietary modification best improves insulin sensitivity and why? Clin Endocrinol (Oxf). 2012 Oct;77(4):508-12.


Abstract:

Insulin resistance (IR) has been proposed as the strongest single predictor for incident type 2 diabetes and is mainly caused by adiposity as a result of chronic excessive energy intake. Loss of body weight and fat mass improve insulin sensitivity. However, independent of energy intake and changes in body weight/composition, dietary content and specific metabolic effects of certain nutrients may play significant additional roles in influencing IR. These effects are mainly relatively modest, with modulation of IR and diabetes risk within the range of 10-30%, but could be of major relevance on a population level. Examples include dietary concepts and patterns such as the traditional Mediterranean diet; the isoenergetic modulation of the composition of types of fatty acids in the diet; low-carbohydrate-high-protein diets; the quality of carbohydrate-rich foods, which includes the concepts of glycaemic index (GI) and glycaemic load; and, not necessarily related to the GI concept, specific metabolic effects of high-fibre diets, with relevant differences between the type of fibre consumed. Effects of further selected foods (e.g. coffee, tea and nuts) and micronutrients (e.g. magnesium, selenium and zinc) on the modulation of IR have been reviewed elsewhere. This study focuses on changes in IR by isoenergetic modulation of the main macronutrients (fat, carbohydrates including dietary fibre, and dietary protein), with discussion of novel concepts and the potential interplay of food components in the current dietary concepts.

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Efectiveness of long-term consumption of nuts, seeds and seeds’ oil on glucose and lipid levels; systematic review

Reference:

De Lira-García C, Bacardí-Gascón M, Jiménez-Cruz A. [Efectivenesslipid level of long-term consumption of nuts, seeds and seeds’ oil on glucose and lipid levels; systematic review]. Nutr Hosp. 2012 Jul-Aug;27(4):964-70. [Article in Spanish]


Abstract:

OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study was to determine the effectiveness of long-term consumption of nuts, seeds and vegetable oil (NSO) on weight, glucose, and lipid levels.

METHODS: We searched English articles published in Pubmed and Ebsco up to May 2011. Studies were included if they were randomized clinical trials, and had an intervention period of 24 or more weeks. Search terms include: “diabetes mellitus”, “Nuts”, “Diet Mediterranean”, “Seeds”, “Oils”, “Canola oil”, “Olive oil”,”Walnut”, “Almond”, “Pistachio”, “Paleolithic diet”, “High monounsaturated diet”, “High polyunsaturated diet”, “Soya” and “Sunflower”.

RESULTS: Thirteen studies met the inclusion criteria; eight studies had a 24 weeks intervention period, one had 42 weeks, one had 48 weeks, and for the other three the intervention lasted 52 or more weeks. At 24 weeks a consistent increase of HDL levels and inconsistent improvement of weight, BMI, waist to hip index, A1C, total cholesterol, LDL: HDL, LDL, triglycerides, and diastolic blood pressure was observed. Four studies with an intervention ≥ 48 weeks showed no statistical difference, and in one study a reduction of weight, BMI, waist hip index, glucose, insulin, total cholesterol, HDL: cholesterol, triglycerides, and blood pressure was observed.

CONCLUSION: No evidence of long-term improvement of NSO on weight, glucose or lipids in the adult population was found.

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Red meat consumption and risk of type 2 diabetes: 3 cohorts of US adults and an updated meta-analysis

Reference:

Pan A, Sun Q, Bernstein AM, Schulze MB, Manson JE, Willett WC, Hu FB. Red meat consumption and risk of type 2 diabetes: 3 cohorts of US adults and an updated meta-analysis. Am J Clin Nutr. 2011 Oct;94(4):1088-96.


Abstract:

BACKGROUND: The relation between consumption of different types of red meats and risk of type 2 diabetes (T2D) remains uncertain.

OBJECTIVE: We evaluated the association between unprocessed and processed red meat consumption and incident T2D in US adults.

DESIGN: We followed 37,083 men in the Health Professionals Follow-Up Study (1986-2006), 79,570 women in the Nurses’ Health Study I (1980-2008), and 87,504 women in the Nurses’ Health Study II (1991-2005). Diet was assessed by validated food-frequency questionnaires, and data were updated every 4 y. Incident T2D was confirmed by a validated supplementary questionnaire.

RESULTS: During 4,033,322 person-years of follow-up, we documented 13,759 incident T2D cases. After adjustment for age, BMI, and other lifestyle and dietary risk factors, both unprocessed and processed red meat intakes were positively associated with T2D risk in each cohort (all P-trend <0.001). The pooled HRs (95% CIs) for a one serving/d increase in unprocessed, processed, and total red meat consumption were 1.12 (1.08, 1.16), 1.32 (1.25, 1.40), and 1.14 (1.10, 1.18), respectively. The results were confirmed by a meta-analysis (442,101 participants and 28,228 diabetes cases): the RRs (95% CIs) were 1.19 (1.04, 1.37) and 1.51 (1.25, 1.83) for 100 g unprocessed red meat/d and for 50 g processed red meat/d, respectively. We estimated that substitutions of one serving of nuts, low-fat dairy, and whole grains per day for one serving of red meat per day were associated with a 16-35% lower risk of T2D. CONCLUSION: Our results suggest that red meat consumption, particularly processed red meat, is associated with an increased risk of T2D.

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Nuts as a replacement for carbohydrates in the diabetic diet

Reference:

Jenkins DJ, Kendall CW, Banach MS, Srichaikul K, Vidgen E, Mitchell S, Parker T, Nishi S, Bashyam B, de Souza R, Ireland C, Josse RG. Nuts as a replacement for carbohydrates in the diabetic diet. Diabetes Care. 2011 Aug;34(8):1706-11.


Abstract:

OBJECTIVE: Fat intake, especially monounsaturated fatty acid (MUFA), has been liberalized in diabetic diets to preserve HDL cholesterol and improve glycemic control, yet the exact sources have not been clearly defined. Therefore, we assessed the effect of mixed nut consumption as a source of vegetable fat on serum lipids and HbA(1c) in type 2 diabetes.

RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS: A total of 117 type 2 diabetic subjects were randomized to one of three treatments for 3 months. Supplements were provided at 475 kcal per 2,000-kcal diet as mixed nuts (75 g/day), muffins, or half portions of both. The primary outcome was change in HbA(1c). RESULTS: The relative increase in MUFAs was 8.7% energy on the full-nut dose compared with muffins. Using an intention-to-treat analysis (n = 117), full-nut dose (mean intake 73 g/day) reduced HbA(1c) (-0.21% absolute HbA(1c) units, 95% CI -0.30 to -0.11, P < 0.001) with no change after half-nut dose or muffin. Full-nut dose was significantly different from half-nut dose (P = 0.004) and muffin (P = 0.001), but no difference was seen between half-nut dose and muffins. LDL cholesterol also decreased significantly after full-nut dose compared with muffin. The LDL cholesterol reduction after half-nut dose was intermediate and not significantly different from the other treatments. Apolipoprotein (apo) B and the apoB:apoA1 ratio behaved similarly. Nut intake related negatively to changes in HbA(1c) (r = -0.20, P = 0.033) and LDL cholesterol (r = -0.24, P = 0.011). CONCLUSIONS: Two ounces of nuts daily as a replacement for carbohydrate foods improved both glycemic control and serum lipids in type 2 diabetes.

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Ground roasted peanuts leads to a lower post-prandial glycemic response than raw peanuts

Reference:

Reis CE, Bordalo LA, Rocha AL, Freitas DM, da Silva MV, de Faria VC, Martino HS, Costa NM, Alfenas RC. Ground roasted peanuts leads to a lower post-prandial glycemic response than raw peanuts. Nutr Hosp. 2011 Jul-Aug;26(4):745-51.


Abstract:

INTRODUCTION: Few studies have evaluated the effect of nuts processing on the glycemic response and satiety.

OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the effect of peanut processing on glycemic response, and energy and nutrients intake.

METHOD: Thirteen healthy subjects (4 men and 9 women), with a mean age of 28.5 ± 10 years, BMI 22.7 ± 2.5 kg/m², and body fat 23.7 ± 5.7% participated in this randomized crossover clinical trial. After 10-12 h of fasting, one of the following types of test meals were consumed: raw peanuts with skin (RPS), roasted peanuts without skin, ground-roasted peanuts without skin (GRPWS) or control meal. The test meals had the same nutrient composition, and were consumed with 200 ml of water in 15 minutes. Glycemic response was evaluated 2 hours after each meal. Energy and nutrients intake were assessed through diet records reflecting the habitual food intake and food consumption 24 hours after the ingestion of test meal.

RESULT: The area under the glycemic response curve after GRPWS was lower (p = 0.02) the one obtained for RPS. There was no treatment effect on energy intake, macronutrients and fiber consumption after the test meal.

CONCLUSION: The consumption of ground-roasted peanuts may favor the control and prevention of diabetes due to its reduction on postprandial glucose response. However, more prospective studies are needed to confirm this hypothesis.

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Almond ingestion at mealtimes reduces post prandial glycemia and chronic ingestion reduces hemoglobin A1c in individuals with well controlled type 2 diabetes mellitus

Reference:

Cohen AS, Johnston CS. Almond ingestion at mealtimes reduces post prandial glycemia and chronic ingestion reduces hemoglobin A1c in individuals with well controlled type 2 diabetes mellitus. Metab Clin Exp 2011.


Abstract:

In press; abstract not yet available.

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The glycemic effect of nut-enriched meals in healthy and diabetic subjects

Reference:

Kendall CW, Esfahani A, Josse AR, Augustin LS, Vidgen E, Jenkins DJ. The glycemic effect of nut-enriched meals in healthy and diabetic subjects. Nutr Metab Cardiovasc Dis. 2011 Jun;21 Suppl 1:S34-9.


Abstract:

BACKGROUND AND AIMS: The intake of nuts has been linked to a reduced risk of cardiovascular disease (CVD) and diabetes in large cohort studies. One potential contributing mechanism may be the ability of nuts to improve post-meal glycemic response. We, therefore, examined the effect of nuts alone and in combination with white bread on postprandial glycemia.

METHODS AND RESULTS: 30, 60 and 90 g (approximately 1, 2 and 3 ounces) of mixed nuts were consumed with and without 50 g available carbohydrate from white bread by 10-14 normoglycemic and 5-10 type 2 diabetic subjects. Glycemic response (GR) was assessed by calculating the incremental area under the 2 h blood glucose curve. All three doses of mixed nuts, when fed alone, significantly reduced the glycemic response in both normoglycemic and diabetic patients. Furthermore, in the normoglycemic subjects, adding nuts to white bread progressively reduced the GR of the meal by 11.2 ± 11.6%, 29.7 ± 12.2% and 53.5 ± 8.5% for the 30, 60, and 90 g doses (P = 0.354, P = 0.031 and P < 0.001, respectively), while in subjects with type 2 diabetes, the effect was half of that seen in the non-diabetic subjects (P = 0.474, P = 0.113 and P = 0.015, respectively). CONCLUSION: Nuts alone have little effect on post-meal blood glucose response. Furthermore, when taken with bread, nuts progressively reduce the glycemic response in a dose-dependent manner. While these findings support a short-term benefit for nuts in postprandial glucose response, more studies are required to determine whether these acute benefits result in long-term improvements in glycemic control.

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The impact of pistachio intake alone or in combination with high-carbohydrate foods on post-prandial glycemia

Reference:

Kendall CW, Josse AR, Esfahani A, Jenkins DJ. The impact of pistachio intake alone or in combination with high-carbohydrate foods on post-prandial glycemia. Eur J Clin Nutr. 2011 Jun;65(6):696-702.


Abstract:

BACKGROUND/OBJECTIVES: Dietary strategies that reduce post-prandial glycemia are important in the prevention and treatment of diabetes and coronary heart disease (CHD). This may be achieved by addition of high-quality protein and fat contained in pistachio nuts, to carbohydrate-containing foods or meals.

SUBJECTS/METHODS: A total of 10 healthy volunteers (3 males, 7 females); aged 48.3±6.4 years; Body mass index (BMI) 28.0±4.8 kg/m(2) participated in two studies. Study 1 assessed the dose-response effect of 28, 56 and 84 g pistachios consumed alone or co-ingested with white bread (50 g available carbohydrate); Study 2 assessed the effective dose (56 g) of pistachios on post-prandial glycemia consumed with different commonly consumed carbohydrate foods (50 g available carbohydrate). Relative glycemic responses (RGRs) of study meals compared with white bread, were assessed over the 2 h post-prandial period.

RESULTS: The RGRs of pistachios consumed alone expressed as a percentage of white bread (100%) were: 28 g (5.7±1.8%); 56 g (3.8±1.8%); 84 g (9.3±3.2%), P<0.001. Adding pistachios to white bread resulted in a dose-dependent reduction in the RGR of the composite meal; 28 g (89.1±6.0, P=0.100); 56 g (67.3±9.8, P=0.009); 84 g (51.5±7.5, P<0.001). Addition of 56 g pistachios to carbohydrate foods significantly reduced the RGR: parboiled rice (72.5±6.0) versus rice and pistachios (58.7±5.1) (P=0.031); pasta (94.8±11.4) versus pasta and pistachios (56.4±5.0) (P=0.025); whereas for mashed potatoes (109.0±6.6) versus potatoes and pistachios, (87.4±8.0) (P=0.063) the results approached significance. CONCLUSIONS: Pistachios consumed alone had a minimal effect on post-prandial glycemia and when taken with a carbohydrate meal attenuated the RGR. The beneficial effects of pistachios on post-prandial glycemia could, therefore, be part of the mechanism by which nuts reduce the risk of diabetes and CHD.

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Almond consumption improved glycemic control and lipid profiles in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus

Reference:

Li SC, Liu YH, Liu JF, Chang WH, Chen CM, Chen CY. Almond consumption improved glycemic control and lipid profiles in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus. Metabolism. 2011 Apr;60(4):474-9.


Abstract:

Almond consumption is associated with ameliorations in obesity, hyperlipidemia, hypertension, and hyperglycemia. The hypothesis of this 12-week randomized crossover clinical trial was that almond consumption would improve glycemic control and decrease the risk for cardiovascular disease in 20 Chinese patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) (9 male, 11 female; 58 years old; body mass index, 26 kg/m²) with mild hyperlipidemia. After a 2-week run-in period, patients were assigned to either a control National Cholesterol Education Program step II diet (control diet) or an almond diet for 4 weeks, with a 2-week washout period between alternative diets. Almonds were added to the control diet to replace 20% of total daily calorie intake. Addition of approximately 60 g almonds per day increased dietary intakes of fiber, magnesium, polyunsaturated fatty acid, monounsaturated fatty acid, and vitamin E. Body fat determined with bioelectrical impedance analysis was significantly lower in patients consuming almonds (almonds vs control: 29.6% vs 30.4%). The almond diet enhanced plasma α-tocopherol level by a median 26.8% (95% confidence intervals, 15.1-36.6) compared with control diet. Furthermore, almond intake decreased total cholesterol, low-density lipoprotein cholesterol, and the ratio of low-density lipoprotein cholesterol to high-density lipoprotein cholesterol by 6.0% (1.6-9.4), 11.6% (2.8-19.1), and 9.7% (0.3-20.9), respectively. Plasma apolipoprotein (apo) B levels, apo B/apo A-1 ratio, and nonesterified fatty acid also decreased significantly by 15.6% (5.1-25.4), 17.4% (2.8-19.9), and 5.5% (3.0-14.4), respectively. Compared with subjects in the control diet, those in the almond diet had 4.1% (0.9-12.5), 0.8% (0.4-6.3), and 9.2% (4.4-13.2) lower levels of fasting insulin, fasting glucose, and homeostasis model assessment of insulin resistance index, respectively. Our results suggested that incorporation of almonds into a healthy diet has beneficial effects on adiposity, glycemic control, and the lipid profile, thereby potentially decreasing the risk for cardiovascular disease in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus.

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Differential effects of walnuts vs almonds on improving metabolic and endocrine parameters in PCOS

Reference:

Kalgaonkar S, Almario RU, Gurusinghe D, Garamendi EM, Buchan W, Kim K, Karakas SE. Differential effects of walnuts vs almonds on improving metabolic and endocrine parameters in PCOS. Eur J Clin Nutr. 2011 Mar;65(3):386-93.


Abstract:

BACKGROUND/OBJECTIVES: Polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) is commonly associated with insulin resistance, dyslipidemia and increased inflammation, which all benefit from dietary intake of monounsaturated and n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (MUFA and n-3 PUFA). Our goal was to compare the effects of MUFA-rich almonds vs n-3/n-6 PUFA-rich walnuts on metabolic and endocrine parameters in PCOS.

SUBJECTS/METHODS: Thirty-one PCOS patients randomly received either walnuts or almonds containing 31 g of total fat per day for 6 weeks. At the beginning and at the end, anthropometric parameters, fasting lipids, phospholipid-fatty acids, inflammatory markers, androgens, oral glucose tolerance tests (OGTT) and frequently sampled intravenous-GTT were obtained.

RESULTS: Weight remained stable. Within group, walnuts increased the n-3/n-6 essential PUFA in the diet and plasma phospholipids. Walnuts decreased low-density lipoprotein-cholesterol by 6% from 3.76 ± 0.27 to 3.38 ± 0.22 mmol/l (P = 0.05) and apoprotein B by 11% from 0.72 ± 0.04 to 0.64 ± 0.05 g/l (P < 0.03). Although almonds also reduced low-density lipoprotein-cholesterol by 10% and apoprotein B by 9%, these were not significant. Walnuts increased insulin response during OGTT by 26% (P < 0.02). Both walnuts and almonds increased adiponectin (walnuts from 9.5 ± 1.6 to 11.3 ± 1.8 μg per 100 ml, P = 0.0241; almonds from 10.1 ± 1.5 to 12.2 ± 1.4 μg/dl, P = 0.0262). Walnuts decreased HgBA1 from 5.7 ± 0.1 to 5.5 ± 0.1% (P = 0.0006) with significant intergroup difference from almonds (P=0.0470). Walnuts increased sex hormone-binding globulin from 38.3 ± 4.1 to 43.1 ± 4.3 nmol/l (P=0.0038) and almonds reduced free androgen index from 2.6 ± 0.4 to 1.8 ± 0.3 (P = 0.0470). CONCLUSION: Nut intake exerted beneficial effects on plasma lipids and androgens in PCOS.

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Food consumption, nutrient intake and the risk of having metabolic syndrome: the DR’s EXTRA Study

Reference:

Kouki R et al Food consumption, nutrient intake and the risk of having metabolic syndrome: the DR’s EXTRA Study. Eur J Clin Nutr. 2011 Mar;65(3):368-77.


Abstract:

BACKGROUND: The associations of different components of diet with metabolic syndrome (MetS) are largely unknown. We therefore studied the associations of intakes of selected food items and nutrients with the risk of having MetS.

METHODS: The participants were a representative population sample of 1334 individuals (671 women, 663 men) 57-78 years of age. Dietary intake was assessed by a 4-day food record. MetS was defined by the National Cholesterol Education Program criteria.

RESULTS: Consumption of vegetables, non-root vegetables, legumes and nuts, berries and fish had an inverse and consumption of sausage had a direct association with the risk of having MetS in men after adjustment for age, smoking and alcohol consumption. Consumption of vegetables and non-root vegetables had an inverse and consumption of sausage had a direct association with the risk of having MetS in women after these adjustments. However, after further adjustment for maximal oxygen uptake (VO₂(max)) most of these associations vanished. Men in the highest third of consumption of berries, fish, and legumes and nuts had 49, 37 and 44% lower risk of having MetS, respectively, than those in the lowest third after further adjustment for VO₂(max). Women in the highest third of sausage consumption had a 72% higher risk of having MetS than non-consumers.

CONCLUSIONS: Consumption of legumes and nuts, berries and fish was inversely associated with MetS in men. Consumption of sausage was directly associated with MetS in women. VO₂(max) seems to be a strong confounding factor between food consumption and MetS.

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The impact of pistachio intake alone or in combination with high-carbohydrate foods on post-prandial glycemia

Reference:

Kendall CW, Josse AR, Esfahani A, Jenkins DJ. The impact of pistachio intake alone or in combination with high-carbohydrate foods on post-prandial glycemia. Eur J Clin Nutr. 2011 Mar 2.


Abstract:

BACKGROUND/OBJECTIVES: Dietary strategies that reduce post-prandial glycemia are important in the prevention and treatment of diabetes and coronary heart disease (CHD). This may be achieved by addition of high-quality protein and fat contained in pistachio nuts, to carbohydrate-containing foods or meals.

SUBJECTS/METHODS: A total of 10 healthy volunteers (3 males, 7 females); aged 48.3±6.4 years; Body mass index (BMI) 28.0±4.8 kg/m(2) participated in two studies. Study 1 assessed the dose-response effect of 28, 56 and 84 g pistachios consumed alone or co-ingested with white bread (50 g available carbohydrate); Study 2 assessed the effective dose (56 g) of pistachios on post-prandial glycemia consumed with different commonly consumed carbohydrate foods (50 g available carbohydrate). Relative glycemic responses (RGRs) of study meals compared with white bread, were assessed over the 2 h post-prandial period.

RESULTS: The RGRs of pistachios consumed alone expressed as a percentage of white bread (100%) were: 28 g (5.7±1.8%); 56 g (3.8±1.8%); 84 g (9.3±3.2%), P<0.001. Adding pistachios to white bread resulted in a dose-dependent reduction in the RGR of the composite meal; 28 g (89.1±6.0, P=0.100); 56 g (67.3±9.8, P=0.009); 84 g (51.5±7.5, P<0.001). Addition of 56 g pistachios to carbohydrate foods significantly reduced the RGR: parboiled rice (72.5±6.0) versus rice and pistachios (58.7±5.1) (P=0.031); pasta (94.8±11.4) versus pasta and pistachios (56.4±5.0) (P=0.025); whereas for mashed potatoes (109.0±6.6) versus potatoes and pistachios, (87.4±8.0) (P=0.063) the results approached significance. CONCLUSIONS: Pistachios consumed alone had a minimal effect on post-prandial glycemia and when taken with a carbohydrate meal attenuated the RGR. The beneficial effects of pistachios on post-prandial glycemia could, therefore, be part of the mechanism by which nuts reduce the risk of diabetes and CHD.

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Effects of one serving of mixed nuts on serum lipids, insulin resistance and inflammatory markers in patients with the metabolic syndrome

Reference:

Casas-Agustench P, López-Uriarte P, Bulló M, Ros E, Cabré-Vila JJ, Salas-Salvadó J. Effects of one serving of mixed nuts on serum lipids, insulin resistance and inflammatory markers in patients with the metabolic syndrome. Nutr Metab Cardiovasc Dis. 2011 Feb;21(2):126-35.


Abstract:

BACKGROUND AND AIMS: Knowledge of the effect of nut consumption on metabolic syndrome (MetS) components is limited. We assessed the effects of nut intake on adiposity, serum lipids, insulin resistance, and inflammatory biomarkers in patients with MetS.

METHOD AND RESULTS: In a randomized, parallel-group, 12-week feeding trial, 50 patients with MetS were given recommendations for a healthy diet with or without supplementation with 30 g/day of raw nuts (15 g walnuts, 7.5 g almonds and 7.5 g hazelnuts) (Nut and Control diet groups, respectively). Adiposity measures, serum lipids, insulin, Homeostasis Model Assessment (HOMA), interleukin-6 (IL-6) and other inflammatory biomarkers, and 48-h fecal fat were determined basally and at study’s completion. Moderate weight loss, decreased adiposity, and lower blood pressure occurred similarly after both diets. The Control, but not the Nut diet, was associated with significant (P<0.05) reduction of LDL-cholesterol, with mean changes of -0.36 versus -0.13 mmol/L, respectively (between-group differences, P=0.154). The Nut diet reduced fasting insulin by 2.60 μU/mL (95% CI, -4.62 to -0.59) and HOMA-insulin resistance by 0.72 (-1.28 to -0.16) (P<0.05 versus Control diet; both). Among inflammatory markers, the Nut diet resulted in changes of median plasma IL-6 of -1.1 ng/L (-2.7 to -0.1; P=0.035 versus Control diet), but adjustment for weight loss attenuated the significance of the association. Stool fat decreased with the Control diet and slightly increased with the Nut diet (P<0.05 for between-group differences). CONCLUSION: Patients with MetS show decreased lipid responsiveness but improved insulin sensitivity after daily intake of 30 g of mixed nuts.

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Reduction in the Incidence of Type 2-Diabetes with the Mediterranean Diet: Results of the PREDIMED-Reus Nutrition Intervention Randomized Trial

Reference:

Salas-Salvadó J, et al Reduction in the Incidence of Type 2-Diabetes with the Mediterranean Diet: Results of the PREDIMED-Reus Nutrition Intervention Randomized Trial. Diabetes Care. 2011 Jan;34(1):14-9.


Abstract:

OBJECTIVE: To test the effects of two Mediterranean diet (MedDiet) interventions versus a low-fat diet on incidence of diabetes.

RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS: This was a three-arm randomized trial in 418 nondiabetic subjects aged 55-80 years recruited in one center (PREDIMED-Reus, northeastern Spain) of the Prevención con Dieta Mediterránea [PREDIMED] study, a large nutrition intervention trial for primary cardiovascular prevention in individuals at high cardiovascular risk. Participants were randomly assigned to education on a low-fat diet (control group) or to one of two MedDiets, supplemented with either free virgin olive oil (1 liter/week) or nuts (30 g/day). Diets were ad libitum, and no advice on physical activity was given. The main outcome was diabetes incidence diagnosed by the 2009 American Diabetes Association criteria.

RESULTS: After a median follow-up of 4.0 years, diabetes incidence was 10.1% (95% CI 5.1-15.1), 11.0% (5.9-16.1), and 17.9% (11.4-24.4) in the MedDiet with olive oil group, the MedDiet with nuts group, and the control group, respectively. Multivariable adjusted hazard ratios of diabetes were 0.49 (0.25-0.97) and 0.48 (0.24-0.96) in the MedDiet supplemented with olive oil and nuts groups, respectively, compared with the control group. When the two MedDiet groups were pooled and compared with the control group, diabetes incidence was reduced by 52% (27-86). In all study arms, increased adherence to the MedDiet was inversely associated with diabetes incidence. Diabetes risk reduction occurred in the absence of significant changes in body weight or physical activity.

CONCLUSIONS: MedDiets without calorie restriction seem to be effective in the prevention of diabetes in subjects at high cardiovascular risk.

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Lifestyle Counseling and Supplementation with Flaxseed or Walnuts Influence the Management of Metabolic Syndrome

Reference:

Wu H, Pan A, Yu Z, Qi Q, Lu L, Zhang G, Yu D, Zong G, Zhou Y, Chen X, Tang L, Feng Y, Zhou H, Chen X, Li H, Demark-Wahnefried W, Hu FB, Lin X. Lifestyle Counseling and Supplementation with Flaxseed or Walnuts Influence the Management of Metabolic Syndrome. J Nutr. 2010 Nov;140(11):1937-42.


Abstract:

A healthy lifestyle may ameliorate metabolic syndrome (MetS); however, it remains unclear if incorporating nuts or seeds into lifestyle counseling (LC) has additional benefit. A 3-arm, randomized, controlled trial was conducted among 283 participants screened for MetS using the updated National Cholesterol Education Program Adult Treatment Panel III criteria for Asian Americans. Participants were assigned to a LC on the AHA guidelines, LC + flaxseed (30 g/d) (LCF), or LC + walnuts (30 g/d) (LCW) group. After the 12-wk intervention, the prevalence of MetS decreased significantly in all groups: -16.9% (LC), -20.2% (LCF), and -16.0% (LCW). The reversion rate of MetS, i.e. those no longer meeting the MetS criteria at 12 wk, was not significantly different among groups (LC group, 21.1%; LCF group, 26.6%; and LCW group, 25.5%). However, the reversion rate of central obesity was higher in the LCF (19.2%; P = 0.008) and LCW (16.0%; P = 0.04) groups than in the LC group (6.3%). Most of the metabolic variables (weight, waist circumference, serum glucose, total cholesterol, LDL cholesterol, apolipoprotein (Apo) B, ApoE, and blood pressure) were significantly reduced from baseline in all 3 groups. However, the severity of MetS, presented as the mean count of MetS components, was significantly reduced in the LCW group compared with the LC group among participants with confirmed MetS at baseline (P = 0.045). Our results suggest that a low-intensity lifestyle education program is effective in MetS management. Flaxseed and walnut supplementation may ameliorate central obesity. Further studies with larger sample sizes and of longer duration are needed to examine the role of these foods in the prevention and management of MetS.

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Relationship between major dietary patterns and metabolic syndrome among individuals with impaired glucose tolerance

Reference:

Amini M, Esmaillzadeh A, Shafaeizadeh S, Behrooz J, Zare M. Relationship between major dietary patterns and metabolic syndrome among individuals with impaired glucose tolerance. Nutrition. 2010 Oct;26(10):986-92.


Abstract:

OBJECTIVE: Dietary habits have been associated with the prevalence of the metabolic syndrome and limited data are available in this field for individuals with impaired glucose tolerance. This study focused on the association between major dietary patterns and prevalence of the metabolic syndrome in individuals with impaired glucose tolerance.

METHODS: This cross-sectional study was done in 425 subjects 35 to 55 y of age. Dietary data were collected using a food-frequency questionnaire. Blood pressure, waist circumference, glucose, triacylglycerols, and high-density lipoprotein cholesterol were measured and metabolic syndrome was defined based on Adult Treatment Panel III guidelines.

RESULTS: Five major dietary patterns were found: a western pattern (high in sweets, butter, soda, mayonnaise, sugar, cookies, tail of a lamb, hydrogenated fat, and eggs), a prudent pattern (high in fish, peas, honey, nuts, juice, dry fruits, vegetable oil, liver and organic meat, and coconuts and low in hydrogenated fat and non-leafy vegetables), a vegetarian pattern (high in potatoes, legumes, fruits rich in vitamin C, rice, green leafy vegetables, and fruits rich in vitamin A), a high-fat dairy pattern (high in high-fat yogurt and high-fat milk and low in low-fat yogurt, peas, and bread), and a chicken and plant pattern (high in chicken, fruits rich in vitamin A, green leafy vegetables, and mayonnaise and low in beef, liver, and organic meat). After adjusting for confounding variables, the western pattern was associated with greater odds of having increased triacylglycerol (odds ratio 1.76, 95% confidence interval 1.01-3.07) and blood pressure (odds ratio 2.62, 95% confidence interval 1.32-5.23). The prudent pattern was positively associated with a prevalence of low high-density lipoprotein cholesterol levels (odds ratio 0.55, 95% confidence interval 0.31-0.96). The vegetarian dietary pattern was inversely associated with a risk of an abnormal fasting blood glucose level (odds ratio 2.26, 95% confidence interval 1.25-4.06).

CONCLUSION: Major dietary patterns were significantly associated with the risk of metabolic syndrome.

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Nuts, metabolic syndrome and diabetes

Reference:

Kendall CW, Josse AR, Esfahani A, Jenkins DJ. Nuts, metabolic syndrome and diabetes. Br J Nutr. 2010 Aug;104(4):465-73.


Abstract:

The ability of nuts to improve the blood lipid profile and reduce the risk of CHD is now well established. The interest that health effects of nuts have gained recently has brought the possible benefits of consuming nuts, such as improvement in the conditions of the metabolic syndrome, and their potential to prevent and control diabetes into focus. Results from cohort studies have associated nut consumption with a reduced risk of developing diabetes and CVD. However, few randomised controlled trials have assessed the effect of nuts on diabetes control, and those that have been undertaken have shown improvements in blood lipids but not in the glycaemic control. Diabetes agencies are increasingly recognising the importance of controlling postprandial glycaemia fluctuations. Acute feeding studies indicate that nuts have minimal effects on rising postprandial blood glucose levels when eaten alone, and diminish the postprandial glycaemic response when consumed with high-glycaemic index carbohydrate foods in both normoglycaemic and type 2 diabetic individuals. Nuts have a healthy nutritional profile, high in MUFA and PUFA, are a good source of vegetable protein and are rich in fibre, vitamins and minerals. Incorporation of nuts in the diet may therefore improve the overall nutritional quality of the diet. While more research is required to establish the ability of nuts to improve glycaemic control in the long run, early data indicate that the inclusion of nuts in the diets of individuals with diabetes and the metabolic syndrome is warranted, in view of their potential to reduce CHD risk.

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