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Archive for category Nuts & Weight


Nuts improve diet quality compared to other energy-dense snacks while maintaining body weight

Reference:

Tey SL, Brown R, Gray A, Chisholm A, Delahunty C. Nuts improve diet quality compared to other energy-dense snacks while maintaining body weight. J Nutr Metab. 2011;2011:357350.


Abstract:

Previous studies have reported that regular nut consumption reduces cardiovascular disease (CVD) risk and does not promote weight gain despite the fact that nuts are energy-dense. However, no studies have investigated the body composition of those regularly consuming nuts compared to similar intakes of other snacks of equal energy density. This parallel study (n = 118) examined the effects of providing daily portions (~1100 kJ/d) of hazelnuts, chocolate, or potato crisps compared to a control group receiving no snacks for twelve weeks. Effects on body weight and composition, blood lipids and lipoproteins, resting metabolic rate (RMR), appetite indices, and dietary quality were compared. At week 12, there was no significant difference in any of the outcome measurements between the groups except for dietary quality, which improved significantly in the nut group. Nuts can be incorporated into the diet without adversely affecting body weight and can improve diet quality.

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Nut consumption, weight gain and obesity: Epidemiological evidence

Reference:

Martínez-González MA, Bes-Rastrollo M. Nut consumption, weight gain and obesity: Epidemiological evidence. Nutr Metab Cardiovasc Dis. 2011 Jan 7


Abstract:

BACKGROUND AND AIMS: Short-term trials support that adding tree nuts or peanuts to usual diets does not induce weight gain. We reviewed the available epidemiological evidence on long-term nut consumption and body weight changes. We also report new results from the SUN (“Seguimiento Universidad de Navarra”) cohort.

METHODS AND RESULTS: Published epidemiologic studies with ≥1-yr follow-up were located. Two published reports from large cohorts (SUN and Nurses Health Study-2) showed inverse associations between frequency of nut consumption and long-term weight changes. A beneficial effect of a Mediterranean diet supplemented with tree nuts on waist circumference was reported after 1-yr follow-up in the first 1224 high-risk participants in the PREDIMED (“PREvencion DIeta MEDiterranea”) trial. After assessing 11,895 participants of the SUN cohort, a borderline significant (p value for trend = 0.09) inverse association between baseline nut consumption and average yearly weight gain (multivariate-adjusted means = 0.32 kg/yr (95% confidence interval: 0.22-0.42) and 0.24 (0.11-0.37) kg/yr for participants with no consumption and >4 servings/week, respectively) was found after a 6-yr follow-up.

CONCLUSIONS: Consumption of nuts was not associated with a higher risk of weight gain in long-term epidemiologic studies and clinical trials.

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Nuts and healthy body weight maintenance mechanisms

Reference:

Mattes, R.D., M.L. Dreher. Nuts and healthy body weight maintenance mechanisms. Asia Pac J Clin Nutr. 2010;19(1):137-141.


Abstract:

Nuts are rich sources of multiple nutrients and phytochemicals associated with health benefits, including reduced cardiovascular disease risk. This has prompted recommendations to increase their consumption. However, they are also high in fat and are energy dense. The associations between these properties, positive energy balance and body weight raise questions about such recommendations. Numerous epidemiological and clinical studies show that nuts are not associated with weight gain. Mechanistic studies indicate this is largely attributable to the high satiety and low metabolizable energy (poor bioaccessibility leading to inefficient energy absorption) properties of nuts. Compensatory dietary responses account for 55-75% of the energy provided by nuts. Limited data suggest that routine nut consumption is associated with elevated resting energy expenditure and the thermogenic effect of feeding, resulting in dissipation of another portion of the energy they provide. Additionally, trials contrasting weight loss through regimens that include or exclude nuts indicate improved compliance and greater weight loss when nuts are permitted. Nuts may be included in the diet, in moderation, to enhance palatability, nutrient quality, and chronic disease risk reduction without compromising weight loss or maintenance.

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A population-based study on peanut, tree nut, fish, shellfish, and sesame allergy prevalence in Canada

Reference:

Ben-Shoshan M, Harrington DW, Soller L, Fragapane J, Joseph L, St Pierre Y, Godefroy SB, Elliot SJ, Clarke AE. A population-based study on peanut, tree nut, fish, shellfish, and sesame allergy prevalence in Canada. J Allergy Clin Immunol. 2010 Jun;125(6):1327-35.


Abstract:

BACKGROUND: Recent studies suggest an increased prevalence of food-induced allergy and an increased incidence of food-related anaphylaxis. However, prevalence estimates of food allergies vary considerably between studies.

OBJECTIVES: To determine the prevalence of peanut, tree nut, fish, shellfish, and sesame allergy in Canada.

METHODS: Using comparable methodology to Sicherer et al in the United States in 2002, we performed a cross-Canada, random telephone survey. Food allergy was defined as perceived (based on self-report), probable (based on convincing history or self-report of physician diagnosis), or confirmed (based on history and evidence of confirmatory tests).

RESULTS: Of 10,596 households surveyed in 2008 and 2009, 3666 responded (34.6% participation rate), of which 3613 completed the entire interview, representing 9667 individuals. The prevalence of perceived peanut allergy was 1.00% (95% CI, 0.80%-1.20%); tree nut, 1.22% (95% CI, 1.00%-1.44%); fish, 0.51% (95% CI, 0.37%-0.65%); shellfish, 1.60% (95% CI, 1.35%-1.86%); and sesame, 0.10% (95% CI, 0.04%-0.17%). The prevalence of probable allergy was 0.93% (95% CI, 0.74%-1.12%); 1.14% (95% CI, 0.92%-1.35%); 0.48% (95% CI, 0.34%-0.61%); 1.42% (95% CI, 1.18%-1.66%); and 0.09% (95% CI, 0.03%-0.15%), respectively. Because of the infrequency of confirmatory tests and the difficulty in obtaining results if performed, the prevalence of confirmed allergy was much lower.

CONCLUSION: This is the first nationwide Canadian study to determine the prevalence of severe food allergies. Our results indicate disparities between perceived and confirmed food allergy that might contribute to the wide range of published prevalence estimates. Key word allergic immune system

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US prevalence of self-reported peanut, tree nut, and sesame allergy: 11-year follow-up

Reference:

Sicherer SH, Muñoz-Furlong A, Godbold JH, Sampson HA. US prevalence of self-reported peanut, tree nut, and sesame allergy: 11-year follow-up. J Allergy Clin Immunol. 2010 Jun;125(6):1322-6.


Abstract:

BACKGROUND: Allergy to peanuts and tree nuts (TNs) is the leading cause of fatal allergic reactions in the United States, and the prevalence appears to be increasing.

OBJECTIVES: We sought to determine the US prevalence of self-reported peanut, TN, and sesame allergy in 2008 and compare results with comparable surveys conducted in 1997 and 2002.

METHODS: A nationwide, cross-sectional, random telephone survey for peanut and TN allergy was conducted with a previously used questionnaire, with additional questions about sesame.

RESULTS: A total of 5,300 households (13,534 subjects) were surveyed (participation rate, 42% vs 52% in 2002 and 67% in 1997). Peanut allergy, TN allergy, or both was reported by 1.4% of subjects (95% CI, 1.2% to 1.6%) compared with 1.2% in 2002 and 1.4% in 1997. For adults, the prevalence was 1.3% (95% CI, 1.1% to 1.6%), which was not significantly different from prior surveys. However, the prevalence of peanut or TN allergy for children younger than 18 years was 2.1% (95% CI, 1.6% to 2.7%) compared with 1.2% in 2002 (P = .007) and 0.6% in 1997 (P < .001). The prevalence of peanut allergy in children in 2008 was 1.4% (95% CI, 1.0% to 1.9%) compared with 0.8% in 2002 (P = not significant) and 0.4% in 1997 (P < .0001). The prevalence of childhood TN allergy increased significantly across the survey waves (1.1% in 2008, 0.5% in 2002, and 0.2% in 1997). Sesame allergy was reported by 0.1% (95% CI, 0.0% to 0.2%). CONCLUSIONS: Although caution is required in comparing surveys, peanut allergy, TN allergy, or both continue to be reported by more than 1% of the US population (eg, >3 million subjects) and appear to be increasingly reported among children over the past decade. Sesame allergy is reported much less commonly.

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Walnut Consumption Increases Satiation but Has No Effect on Insulin Resistance or the Metabolic Profile Over a 4-day Period

Reference:

Brennan AM, Sweeney LL, Liu X, Mantzoros CS. Walnut Consumption Increases Satiation but Has No Effect on Insulin Resistance or the Metabolic Profile Over a 4-day Period. Obesity (Silver Spring). 2010 Jun;18(6):1176-82.


Abstract:

Obesity and diabetes have been associated with increased consumption of highly processed foods, and reduced consumption of whole grains and nuts. It has been proposed, mainly on the basis of observational studies, that nuts may provide superior satiation, may lead to reduced calorie consumption, and may decrease the risk of type 2 diabetes; but evidence from randomized, interventional studies is lacking. A total of 20 men and women with the metabolic syndrome participated in a randomized, double-blind, crossover study of walnut consumption. Subjects had two 4-day admissions to the clinical research center where they were fed an isocaloric diet. In addition, they consumed shakes for breakfast containing either walnuts or placebo (shakes were standardized for calories, carbohydrate, and fat content). Appetite, insulin resistance, and metabolic parameters were measured. We found an increased level of satiety (overall P value = 0.0079) and sense of fullness (P = 0.05) in prelunch questionnaires following the walnut breakfast as compared to the placebo breakfast, with the walnut effect achieving significance on day 3 and 4 (P = 0.02 and P = 0.03). We did not find any change in resting energy expenditure, hormones known to mediate satiety, or insulin resistance when comparing the walnut vs. placebo diet. Walnut consumption over 4 days increased satiety by day 3. Long-term studies are needed to confirm the physiologic role of walnuts, the duration of time needed for these effects to occur, and to elucidate the underlying mechanisms.

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Cross-sectional association of nut intake with adiposity in a Mediterranean population

Title:

A systematic review of the evidence supporting a causal link between dietary factors and coronary heart disease.


Reference:

Casas-Agustench P, Bulló M, Ros E, Basora J, Salas-Salvadó J; on behalf of the Nureta-PREDIMED investigators. Cross-sectional association of nut intake with adiposity in a Mediterranean population. Nutr Metab Cardiovasc Dis. 2010 Mar 8.


Abstract:

BACKGROUND AND AIMS: Nut intake has been inversely related to body mass index (BMI) in prospective studies. We examined dietary determinants of adiposity in an elderly Mediterranean population with customarily high nut consumption.

METHODS AND RESULTS: A cross-sectional study was conducted in 847 subjects (56% women, mean age 67 years, BMI 29.7kg/m(2)) at high cardiovascular risk recruited into the PREDIMED study. Food consumption was evaluated by a validated semi-quantitative questionnaire, energy expenditure in physical activity by the Minnesota Leisure Time Activity questionnaire, and anthropometric variables by standard measurements. Nut intake decreased across quintiles of both BMI and waist circumference (P-trend <0.005; both). Alcohol ingestion was inversely related to BMI (P-trend=0.020) and directly to waist (P-trend=0.011), while meat intake was directly associated with waist circumference (P-trend=0.018). In fully adjusted multivariable models, independent dietary associations of BMI were the intake of nuts inversely (P=0.002) and that of meat and meat products directly (P=0.042). For waist circumference, independent dietary associations were intake of nuts (P=0.002) and vegetables (P=0.040), both inversely, and intake of meat and meat products directly (P=0.009). From the regression coefficients, it was predicted that BMI and waist circumference decreased by 0.78kg/m(2) and 2.1cm, respectively, for each serving of 30g of nuts. Results were similar in men and women. CONCLUSION: Nut consumption was inversely associated with adiposity independently of other lifestyle variables. It remains to be explored whether residual confounding related to a healthier lifestyle of nut eaters might in part explain these results.

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The effect of including a conventional snack (cereal bar) and a nonconventional snack (almonds) on hunger, eating frequency, dietary intake and body weight

Reference:

Zaveri S, Drummond S. The effect of including a conventional snack (cereal bar) and a nonconventional snack (almonds) on hunger, eating frequency, dietary intake and body weight. J Hum Nutr Diet. 2009 Oct;22(5):461-8.


Abstract:

BACKGROUND: With the increasing prevalence of being overweight and obesity, dietary strategies to curb hunger levels and increase satiety at lower energy intakes are sought. The frequency of eating and type of snack may influence total energy intake. The present study aimed to assess the impact of providing either a conventional snack (cereal bar) or a nonconventional snack (almonds) on eating frequency, hunger rating, dietary intake, body weight and blood lipids.

METHODS: Forty-five healthy men (aged 25-50 years, body mass index = 25-35 kg m(-2)) were recruited and allocated to a control, cereal bar or almond snack group. Two packets of cereal bars and almonds were introduced for 12 weeks to the cereal bar group and the almond snack group, respectively. Dietary intakes and eating frequency were assessed by 4-day unweighed diet diaries; visual analogue scales were used to assess hunger ratings; and fasting blood parameters (i.e. glucose, insulin, total cholesterol, triglycerides, low-density lipoprotein cholesterol and high-density lipoprotein cholesterol) were measured at baseline, 6 and 12 weeks. In addition, anthropometric measures (height, weight, skinfold thickness, waist and hip circumference) were measured at baseline, 6 and 12 weeks.

RESULTS: The present study found no significant change in the eating frequency within groups at 12 weeks. However, the almond snack group had a significantly higher eating frequency than the control group (P < or = 0.05) and cereal bar group (P < or = 0.01). This did not result in higher energy intake, body weight or percentage body fat in the almond snack group. CONCLUSION: The present study demonstrated that snacking on almonds, in comparison to cereal bars, promoted a higher eating frequency, but not a higher energy intake. Advice to snack on either almonds or cereal bars did not result in weight gain, suggesting that energy compensation took place.

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Prospective study of nut consumption, long-term weight change, and obesity risk in women

Reference:

Bes-Rastrollo M, Wedick N, Martinez-Gonzalez M, Li T, Sampson L, and Hu F. Prospective study of nut consumption, long-term weight change, and obesity risk in women. Am J Clin Nutr 2009;89 1913-1919.


Abstract:

BACKGROUND: Data concerning the long-term association between nut consumption and weight change in a free-living population are sparse.

OBJECTIVE: The objective was to determine the relation between nut consumption and long-term weight change.

DESIGN: The participants were 51,188 women in the Nurses’ Health Study II aged 20-45 y, who had no cardiovascular disease, diabetes, or cancer. We prospectively evaluated the dietary intake of nuts and subsequent weight changes from 1991 to 1999.

RESULTS: Women who reported eating nuts > or =2 times/wk had slightly less mean (+/- SE) weight gain (5.04 +/- 0.12 kg) than did women who rarely ate nuts (5.55 +/- 0.04 kg) (P for trend < 0.001). For the same comparison, when total nut consumption was subdivided into peanuts and tree nuts, the results were similar (ie, less weight gain in women eating either peanuts or tree nuts > or =2 times/wk). The results were similar in normal-weight, overweight, and obese participants. In multivariate analyses in which lifestyle and other dietary factors were controlled for, we found that greater nut consumption (> or =2 times/wk compared with never/almost never) was associated with a slightly lower risk of obesity (hazard ratio: 0.77; 95% CI: 0.57, 1.02; P for trend = 0.003).

CONCLUSIONS: Higher nut consumption was not associated with greater body weight gain during 8 y of follow-up in healthy middle-aged women. Instead, it was associated with a slightly lower risk of weight gain and obesity. The results of this study suggest that incorporating nuts into diets does not lead to greater weight gain and may help weight control.

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The effect of a plant-based low-carbohydrate (“eco-atkins”) diet on body weight and blood lipid concentrations in hyperlipidemic subjects

Reference:

Jenkins DJ et al. The effect of a plant-based low-carbohydrate (“eco-atkins”) diet on body weight and blood lipid concentrations in hyperlipidemic subjects. Arch Intern Med. 2009 Jun 8;169(11):1046-54.


Abstract:

BACKGROUND: Low-carbohydrate, high-animal protein diets, which are advocated for weight loss, may not promote the desired reduction in low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C) concentration. The effect of exchanging the animal proteins and fats for those of vegetable origin has not been tested. Our objective was to determine the effect on weight loss and LDL-C concentration of a low-carbohydrate diet high in vegetable proteins from gluten, soy, nuts, fruits, vegetables, cereals, and vegetable oils compared with a high-carbohydrate diet based on low-fat dairy and whole grain products.

METHODS: A total of 47 overweight hyperlipidemic men and women consumed either (1) a low-carbohydrate (26% of total calories), high-vegetable protein (31% from gluten, soy, nuts, fruit, vegetables, and cereals), and vegetable oil (43%) plant-based diet or (2) a high-carbohydrate lacto-ovo vegetarian diet (58% carbohydrate, 16% protein, and 25% fat) for 4 weeks each in a parallel study design. The study food was provided at 60% of calorie requirements.

RESULTS: Of the 47 subjects, 44 (94%) (test, n = 22 [92%]; control, n = 22 [96%]) completed the study. Weight loss was similar for both diets (approximately 4.0 kg). However, reductions in LDL-C concentration and total cholesterol-HDL-C and apolipoprotein B-apolipoprotein AI ratios were greater for the low-carbohydrate compared with the high-carbohydrate diet (-8.1% [P = .002], -8.7% [P = .004], and -9.6% [P = .001], respectively). Reductions in systolic and diastolic blood pressure were also seen (-1.9% [P = .052] and -2.4% [P = .02], respectively).

CONCLUSION: A low-carbohydrate plant-based diet has lipid-lowering advantages over a high-carbohydrate, low-fat weight-loss diet in improving heart disease risk factors not seen with conventional low-fat diets with animal products.

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Daily exercise fluctuations and dietary patterns during training predict visceral fat regain in obese women

Reference:

Koga R, Tanaka M, Tsuda H, Imai K, Abe S, Masuda T, Iwamoto M, Nakazono E, Kamohara T, Sakata T. Daily exercise fluctuations and dietary patterns during training predict visceral fat regain in obese women. Am J Med Sci. 2008;336(6):450-7


Abstract:

Background: Visceral adiposity is an essential component of metabolic syndrome. Reduction of excessive visceral fat prevents metabolic syndrome and improves atherosclerotic diseases. This study aimed to identify dietary patterns and physical exercise during the training-education period that predict visceral adiposity regain during the follow-up period.

Methods: One hundred one moderately obese Japanese women, 23 to 67 years of age, participated in 0- to 4-month training-education and 12-month follow-up periods. Dietary patterns of food groups during training-education were analyzed by principal components analysis, and 3 major dietary patterns were derived. The change in visceral fat over the follow-up, adjusted for 4-month visceral fat area (VFA) and 4- to 16-month body mass index change, was analyzed using stepwise multiple linear regression.

Results: VFA and body weight decreased during training-education (P<0.001) and were maintained during follow-up. One major dietary pattern (of 3) (P=0.030) and standard deviations of daily exercise duration (P=0.012) during training-education predicted VFA regain during follow-up. This regain correlated negatively with combinations of bread, milk and dairy products, fruits, seeds and nuts, and mushrooms, but positively with combinations of rice, pickles, miso, alcohol, and meat. The large standard deviation of daily exercise duration during training-education showed greater VFA regain during follow-up than did the smaller standard deviation (P=0.023), but body mass index did not show a similar trend. Conclusion: Our results revealed that daily exercise fluctuations and dietary patterns were useful predictors of visceral fat regain

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Mastication of almonds: effects of lipid bioaccessibility, appetite, and hormone response

Title::

Mastication of almonds: effects of lipid bioaccessibility, appetite, and hormone response. Am J Clin Nutr 2009 Jan 89:794-800


Reference:

Cassady BA et al. Mastication of almonds: effects of lipid bioaccessibility, appetite, and hormone response. Am J Clin Nutr 2009 Jan 89:794-800


Abstract:

Background: Epidemiologic and clinical data indicate that nuts can be incorporated into the diet without compromising body weight. This has been attributed to strong satiety properties, increased resting energy expenditure, and limited lipid bioaccessibility.

Objective: The role of mastication was explored because of evidence that the availability of nut lipids is largely dependent on the mechanical fracture of their cell walls.

Design: In a randomized, 3-arm, crossover study, 13 healthy adults (body mass index, in kg/m2: 23.1 ± 0.4) chewed 55 g almonds 10, 25, or 40 times. Blood was collected and appetite was monitored during the following 3 h. Over the next 4 d, all foods were provided, including 55 g almonds, which were consumed under the same chewing conditions. Complete fecal samples were collected.

Results: Hunger was acutely suppressed below baseline (P < 0.05), and fullness was elevated above baseline longer (P < 0.05) after 40 chews than after 25 chews. Two hours after consumption, fullness levels were significantly lower and hunger levels were significantly higher after 25 chews than after 10 and 40 chews (P < 0.05). Initial postingestive glucagon-like peptide-1 concentrations were significantly lower after 25 chews than after 40 chews (P < 0.05), and insulin concentrations declined more rapidly after 25 and 40 chews than after 10 chews (both P < 0.05). Fecal fat excretion was significantly higher after 10 chews than after 25 and 40 chews (both P < 0.05). All participants had higher fecal energy losses after 10 and 25 chews than after 40 chews (P < 0.005). Conclusion: The results indicate important differences in appetitive and physiologic responses to masticating nuts and likely other foods and nutrients. This trial was registered at clinicaltrials.gov as NCT00768417.

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Consumption of restructured meat products with added walnuts has a cholesterol-lowering effect in subjects at high cardiovascular risk: a randomised, crossover, placebo-controlled study

Reference:

Olmedilla-Alonso B, Granado-Lorencio F, Herrero-Barbudo C, Blanco-Navarro I, Blázquez-García S, Pérez-Sacristán B. Consumption of restructured meat products with added walnuts has a cholesterol-lowering effect in subjects at high cardiovascular risk: a randomised, crossover, placebo-controlled study. J Am Coll Nutr. 2008;27(2):342-8.


Abstract:

BACKGROUND: Diet and lifestyle are modifiable factors involved in the development and prevention of non-communicable diseases, including cardiovascular disease. Nut consumption, particularly walnut intake, has been inversely related to incident coronary heart disease (CHD) in observational studies and to improved lipid profiles in short-term feeding trials.

OBJECTIVE: To assess the potential functional effect associated with the regular consumption of walnut-enriched restructured meat products in subjects at risk for cardiovascular disease (CVD).

DESIGN: A crossover single-dose bioavailability study (n = 3) using gamma-tocopherol as exposure marker and a crossover unblinded dietary intervention study (5 weeks) in subjects at risk (n = 25). Dietary intervention consisted of regular consumption of the meat product, with or without walnuts, five times per week for five weeks with a 1-month washout in between. Overnight fasting blood samples were collected on days 0, 12, 21, 28 and 35, coinciding with blood pressure and body weight recordings. Participants were asked to complete a diet record throughout the study. The functional effects were assessed using clinically relevant and related biomarkers of CHD: serum total, HDL and LDL cholesterol, triacylglycerols, homocysteine, vitamins B(6) and B(12), folic acid, alpha-tocopherol and platelet function test (obturation time).

RESULTS: The regular consumption of walnut-enriched meat products compared with that of the restructured meat products without added walnuts provokes a decrease in total cholesterol of 6.8 mg/dl (CI(95%): -12.8, -0.85). Compared to baseline (mixed diet), meat products with walnuts decreased total cholesterol (-10.7 mg/dl, CI(95%): -17.1, -4.2), LDL cholesterol (-7.6 mg/dl, CI(95%): -2.2, -13.0) and body weight (-0.5 kg, CI(95%): -0.1, -0.9) and increased gamma-tocopherol (8.9 mg/dl, CI(95%): 1.0, 16.8).

CONCLUSIONS: The restructured meat products with added walnuts supplied in this study can be considered functional foods for subjects at high risk for CVD, as their regular consumption provokes a reduction in total cholesterol of 4.5% with respect to baseline values (mixed diet) and 3% with respect to the restructured meat without walnuts.

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The effect of Korean pine nut oil on in vitro CCK release, on appetite sensations and on gut hormones in post-menopausal overweight women

Reference:

Pasman WJ, et al. The effect of Korean pine nut oil on in vitro CCK release, on appetite sensations and on gut hormones in post-menopausal overweight women. Lipids Health Dis. 2008:20;7:10.


Abstract:

Appetite suppressants may be one strategy in the fight against obesity. This study evaluated whether Korean pine nut free fatty acids (FFA) and triglycerides (TG) work as an appetite suppressant. Korean pine nut FFA were evaluated in STC-1 cell culture for their ability to increase cholecystokinin (CCK-8) secretion vs. several other dietary fatty acids from Italian stone pine nut fatty acids, oleic acid, linoleic acid, alpha-linolenic acid, and capric acid used as a control. At 50 muM concentration, Korean pine nut FFA produced the greatest amount of CCK-8 release (493 pg/ml) relative to the other fatty acids and control (46 pg/ml). A randomized, placebo-controlled, double-blind cross-over trial including 18 overweight post-menopausal women was performed. Subjects received capsules with 3 g Korean pine (Pinus koraiensis) nut FFA, 3 g pine nut TG or 3 g placebo (olive oil) in combination with a light breakfast. At 0, 30, 60, 90, 120, 180 and 240 minutes the gut hormones cholecystokinin (CCK-8), glucagon like peptide-1 (GLP-1), peptide YY (PYY) and ghrelin, and appetite sensations were measured. A wash-out period of one week separated each intervention day.CCK-8 was higher 30 min after pine nut FFA and 60 min after pine nut TG when compared to placebo (p < 0.01). GLP-1 was higher 60 min after pine nut FFA compared to placebo (p < 0.01). Over a period of 4 hours the total amount of plasma CCK-8 was 60% higher after pine nut FFA and 22% higher after pine nut TG than after placebo (p < 0.01). For GLP-1 this difference was 25% after pine nut FFA (P < 0.05). Ghrelin and PYY levels were not different between groups. The appetite sensation "prospective food intake" was 36% lower after pine nut FFA relative to placebo (P < 0.05).This study suggests that Korean pine nut may work as an appetite suppressant through an increasing effect on satiety hormones and a reduced prospective food intake.

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The energetics of nut consumption

Reference:

Richard D Mattes. The energetics of nut consumption. Asia Pac J Clin Nutr. 2008;17(S1):337-339. Available online at https://apjcn.nhri.org.tw/server/APJCN/Volume17/vol17suppl.1/337-339S21-5.pdf


Abstract:

Nuts (ground and tree) are rich sources of multiple nutrients and their consumption is associated with health benefits, including reduced cardiovascular disease risk. This has prompted recommendations to increase their consumption. However, they are also high in fat (albeit largely unsaturated) and are energy dense. The associations between these properties, positive energy balance, and body weight raise questions about such recommendations. This issue is addressed through a review of the literature pertaining to the association between nut consumption and energy balance. Epidemiological studies document an inverse association between the frequency of nut consumption and BMI. Clinical trials reveal little or no weight change with inclusion of various types of nuts in the diet over 1–6 mo. Mechanistic studies indicate this is largely attributable to the high satiety property of nuts, leading to compensatory responses that account for 65–75% of the energy they provide. Limited data suggest chronic consumption is associated with elevated resting energy expenditure resulting in dissipation of another portion of the energy they provide. Additionally, due to poor bioaccessibility, there is limited efficiency of energy absorption from nuts. Collectively, these mechanisms offset much of the energy provided by nuts. The few trials contrasting weight loss through regimens that include or exclude nuts indicate improved compliance and greater weight loss when nuts are permitted. This consistent literature suggests nuts may be included in the diet, in moderation, to enhance palatability and nutrient quality without posing a threat for weight gain.

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Impact of Peanuts and Tree Nuts on Body Weight and Healthy Weight Loss in Adults

Title::

Consumption of restructured meat products with added walnuts has a cholesterol-lowering effect in subjects at high cardiovascular risk: a randomised, crossover, placebo-controlled study


Reference:

Olmedilla-Alonso B, Granado-Lorencio F, Herrero-Barbudo C, Blanco-Navarro I, Blázquez-García S, Pérez-Sacristán B. Consumption of restructured meat products with added walnuts has a cholesterol-lowering effect in subjects at high cardiovascular risk: a randomised, crossover, placebo-controlled study. J Am Coll Nutr. 2008 Apr;27(2):342-8


Abstract:

Nuts (ground and tree) are rich sources of multiple nutrients and their consumption is associated with health benefits, including reduced cardiovascular disease risk. This has prompted recommendations to increase their consumption. However, they are also high in fat (albeit largely unsaturated) and are energy dense. The associations between these properties, positive energy balance, and body weight raise questions about such recommendations. This issue is addressed through a review of the literature pertaining to the association between nut consumption and energy balance. Epidemiological studies document an inverse association between the frequency of nut consumption and BMI. Clinical trials reveal little or no weight change with inclusion of various types of nuts in the diet over 1–6 mo. Mechanistic studies indicate this is largely attributable to the high satiety property of nuts, leading to compensatory responses that account for 65–75% of the energy they provide. Limited data suggest chronic consumption is associated with elevated resting energy expenditure resulting in dissipation of another portion of the energy they provide. Additionally, due to poor bioaccessibility, there is limited efficiency of energy absorption from nuts. Collectively, these mechanisms offset much of the energy provided by nuts. The few trials contrasting weight loss through regimens that include or exclude nuts indicate improved compliance and greater weight loss when nuts are permitted. This consistent literature suggests nuts may be included in the diet, in moderation, to enhance palatability and nutrient quality without posing a threat for weight gain.

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The effect of Korean pine nut oil (PinnoThin) on food intake, feeding behaviour and appetite: a double-blind placebo-controlled trial

Reference:

Hughes GM, et al. The effect of Korean pine nut oil (PinnoThin) on food intake, feeding behaviour and appetite: a double-blind placebo-controlled trial. Lipids Health Dis. 2008;7:6.


Abstract:

Certain free fatty acids have been shown to have potent effects on food intake and self-reported changes in appetite; effects associated with increases in the release of endogenous cholecystokinin (CCK) and glucagon like peptide-1 (GLP-1). In the current study, the effects of a Korean pine nut oil product, PinnoThin, at doses 2 g, 4 g and 6 g triglyceride (TG) and 2 g free fatty acid (FFA), on food intake and appetite were examined in a cross-over double-blind placebo-controlled randomised counter-balanced design in 42 overweight female volunteers. 2 g FFA PinnoThin, given 30 minutes prior to an ad-libitum buffet test lunch, significantly reduced food intake (gram) by 9% (F(4,164) = 2.637, p = 0.036) compared to olive oil control. No significant effect of PinnoThin on macronutrient intake or ratings of appetite were observed. Given the recent data showing that the TG form of PinnoThin may also reduce appetite by increasing CCK release, the lack of any effect of the TG form found in this study could be attributed to the timing of the dosing regime. Collectively, these data suggest that PinnoThin may exert satiating effects consistent with its known action on CCK and GLP-1 release, and previously observed effects on self-reported appetite ratings.

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Effects of appetite, BMI, food form and flavor on mastication: almonds as a test food

Reference:

Frecka JM, Hollis JH, Mattes RD. Effects of appetite, BMI, food form and flavor on mastication: almonds as a test food. Eur J Clin Nutr. 2008;62(10):1231-8.


Abstract:

OBJECTIVES: To investigate the effects of appetitive sensations, body mass index (BMI) and physical/sensory properties of food (almonds) on masticatory indices and resultant pre-swallowing particle sizes.

SUBJECTS/METHODS: Twelve lean (BMI=22.2+/-0.3) and 12 obese (BMI=34.3+/-0.6) adults. After collecting appetitive ratings, electromyographic recordings were used to assess participants’ microstructure of eating for five almond products (raw, dry unsalted roasted, natural sliced, roasted salted and honey roasted) under fasted and satiated conditions. Duplicate samples were masticated to the point of deglutition and then were expectorated and size sorted.

RESULTS: No statistically significant effects of BMI were detected for any of the mastication measures. Maximum and mean bite forces were greater under the fasted condition. Sliced almonds required lower bite force than did the other almond varieties. The pre-swallowing particle sizes were significantly greater for the sliced almonds than all other varieties. Both the number of chews and mastication time were negatively correlated with particle size. There were no significant effects of almond form or flavor on particle size.

CONCLUSIONS: These results do not support differences in masticatory performance between lean and obese individuals, nor effects of sensory properties. Instead, the physical form of foods as well as an individuals’ appetitive state may have a greater influence on masticatory behavior. The health implications of these observations warrant further investigation.

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Nut consumption and change in weight: the weight of the evidence

Reference:

Sabaté J. Nut consumption and change in weight: the weight of the evidence. Br J Nutr. 2007;98(3):456-7. Epub 2007 Jul 20. Review.


Abstract:

No abstract available

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Peanut digestion and energy balance

Reference:

Traoret CJ, Lokko P, Cruz AC, Oliveira CG, Costa NM, Bressan J, Alfenas RC, Mattes RD.
Peanut digestion and energy balance. Int J Obes (Lond). 2007 Oct 2;


Abstract:

Objective: To explore the effects of peanut consumption on fecal energy excretion with a balanced, non-vegetarian diet.

Design: Four arm parallel group design (that is, whole peanut (P), peanut butter (PB), peanut oil (PO) or peanut flour (PF) consumption) with one crossover (control and intervention).

Subjects: In total 63 healthy men and women from Ghana, Brazil and USA (N=15-16 per group) with an average body mass index of 21.8 kg m(-2).

Measurements: Percent fat of fecal wet weight daily energy excretion during the control and the treatment periods.

Results: Compared to control, the percentage of fat in the feces increased significantly for the P group (5.22+/-0.29%) relative to the other three groups ((PO=3.07+/-0.36%, PB=3.11+/-0.31% (P=0.001), and PF=3.75+/-0.40% (P=0.019)). The same findings held for kJ g(-1) of feces excreted. During the P supplementation period, the energy excretion was 21.4+/-1.0 kJ g(-1) versus 18.7+/-1.0 kJ g(-1) for PO (P=0.034), 18.8+/-0.7 kJ g(-1) for PB (P=0.042) and 18.5+/-0.8 kJ g(-1) for PF (P=0.028).

Conclusion: Fecal fat and energy loss is greater with consumption of whole peanuts compared to peanut butter, oil or flour. This may contribute to the less than predicted change of body weight observed with peanut consumption. There were no cultural differences.

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Free fatty acids have more potent effects on gastric emptying, gut hormones, and appetite than triacylglycerides.

Reference:

Little TJ, Russo A, Meyer JH, Horowitz M, Smyth DR, Bellon M, Wishart JM, Jones KL, Feinle-Bisset C.
Free fatty acids have more potent effects on gastric emptying, gut hormones, and appetite than triacylglycerides. Gastroenterology. 2007;133(4):1124-31.


Abstract:

BACKGROUND & AIMS: The effects of fat on gastric emptying (GE), gut hormones, and energy intake are dependent on digestion to free fatty acids (FFAs). In animals, small intestinal oleic acid inhibits energy intake more potently than the triacylglyceride (TG) triolein, but there is limited information about the comparative effects of FFA and TG in human beings. We compared the effects of FFA and TG on GE, gut hormone secretion, appetite, and energy intake in healthy males.

METHODS: Nine men (age, 23 +/- 2 y; body mass index, 22 +/- 1 kg/m(2)) were studied on 3 occasions to evaluate the effects of (1) 40 g oleic acid (FFA, 1830 kJ), (2) 40 g macadamia oil (TG, 1856 kJ; both 600-mL oil-in-water emulsions stabilized with 4% milk protein and labeled with 15 MBq (123)I), or (3) 600 mL 4% milk protein (control, 352 kJ), administered intragastrically, on GE, plasma cholecystokinin (CCK) and peptide-YY (PYY) levels, appetite perceptions, and subsequent energy intake.

RESULTS: GE of FFA was much slower than that of TG (P < .05), with greater retention of FFA, than TG, in the proximal stomach (P < .001). Hunger was less (P < .05), and fullness was greater (P < .05), after FFA when compared with control and TG. Increases in plasma CCK and PYY levels were greater after FFA than TG or control (P < .05). Energy intake tended to be less after FFA compared with TG (control, 4754 +/- 610 kJ; TG, 5463 +/- 662 kJ; FFA, 4199 +/- 410 kJ). CONCLUSIONS: FFAs empty from the stomach more slowly, but stimulate CCK and PYY and suppress appetite more potently than TG in healthy human beings.

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Effect of chronic consumption of almonds on body weight in healthy humans

Reference:

Hollis J, Mattes R.
Effect of chronic consumption of almonds on body weight in healthy humans. Br J Nutr. 2007;98(3):651-6.


Abstract:

Small changes of diet may reduce CVD risk. One example is the inclusion of nuts. They are rich in fibre, unsaturated fatty acids and phytonutrients. However, their fat content and energy density raise concerns that chronic consumption will promote weight gain. Randomised intervention studies are required to evaluate whether this concern is well founded. This study’s aim was to determine if the inclusion of a 1440 kJ serving of almonds in the daily diet results in positive energy balance, and body composition change. During a 23-week cross-over design study, participants were required to consume almonds for 10 weeks and were provided no advice on how to include them in their diet. For another 10 weeks (order counter-balanced), participants followed their customary diet and there was a 3-week washout between. The study group consisted of twenty women. Potential mechanisms of energy dissipation were measured. Ten weeks of daily almond consumption did not cause a change in body weight. This was predominantly due to compensation for the energy contained in the almonds through reduced food intake from other sources. Moreover, inefficiency in the absorption of energy from almonds was documented (P < 0.05). No changes in resting metabolic rate, thermic effect of food or total energy expenditure were noted. A daily 1440 kJ serving of almonds, sufficient to provide beneficial effects on cardiovascular risk factors, may be included in the diet with limited risk of weight gain. Whether this can be generalised to other high-fat energy dense foods warrants evaluation.

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A review of the evidence: nuts and body weight

Reference:

Natoli S, McCoy P. A review of the evidence: nuts and body weight. Asia Pac J Clin Nutr. 2007;16(4):588-97. Review.


Abstract:

There is currently no single dietary or lifestyle intervention that is effective in long-term weight loss. Traditional weight loss diets tend to be low in total fat and therefore often restrict nut consumption. However, nuts are an important source of many vitamins, minerals, monounsaturated and polyunsaturated fatty acids. This paper reviewed all the available evidence from the literature in relation to nut consumption and body weight. The findings show that the role of nut consumption in body weight management is varied. Nuts, when included as part of an energy-controlled diet, were found in some instances to assist with weight loss. However, when nuts were added to an existing diet without controlling for energy intake, body weight increased, although to a lesser extent than theoretically predicted. There is limited evidence on the effect nut consumption has on type 2 diabetes, although available evidence indicates that nuts as part of a healthy diet do not cause weight gain and can have a positive influence on the fatty acid profile of a person with diabetes. This review shows there is a lack of evidence to support the restriction of nut consumption in weight management, indicating that further research is needed to assess the role of nuts in weight management.

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Nut consumption and weight gain in a Mediterranean cohort: The SUN study

Reference:

Bes-Rastrollo M, Sabaté J, Gómez-Gracia E, Alonso A, Martínez JA, Martínez-González MA. Nut consumption and weight gain in a Mediterranean cohort: The SUN study. Obesity (Silver Spring). 2007;15(1):107-16.


Abstract:

OBJECTIVE: To assess the association, in a Mediterranean population, between nut consumption and risk of weight gain (at least 5 kg) or the risk of becoming overweight/obese.

RESEARCH METHODS AND PROCEDURES: The Seguimiento Universidad de Navarra project is a prospective cohort of 8865 adult men and women who completed a follow-up questionnaire after a median of 28 months. Dietary habits were assessed with a previously validated semiquantitative food-frequency questionnaire.

RESULTS: Nine hundred thirty-seven participants reported a weight gain of > or =5 kg at follow-up. After adjusting for age, sex, smoking, leisure time physical activity, and other known risk factors for obesity, participants who ate nuts two or more times per week had a significantly lower risk of weight gain (odds ratio: 0.69; 95% confidence interval: 0.53 to 0.90, p for trend = 0.006) than those who never or almost never ate nuts. Participants with little nut consumption (never/almost never) gained an average of 424 grams (95% confidence interval: 102 to 746) more than frequent nut eaters. Nut consumption was not significantly associated with incident overweight/obesity in the cohort.

DISCUSSION: Frequent nut consumption was associated with a reduced risk of weight gain (5 kg or more). These results support the recommendation of nut consumption as an important component of a cardioprotective diet and also allay fears of possible weight gain.

SUMMARY: Nuts are densely packaged nutrients with wide-ranging cardiovascular and metabolic benefits, which can be readily incorporated in healthy diets. Their potential role in counteracting obesity and the metabolic syndrome warrants further investigation.

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Nuts: source of energy and macronutrients

Reference:

Brufau G, Boatella J, Rafecas M. Nuts: source of energy and macronutrients. Br J Nutr. 2006 Nov;96 Suppl 2:S24-8.


Abstract:

On the basis of the high fat content of nuts, they are traditionally considered as foods that provide a high amount of energy. However, epidemiologic and clinical observations do not indicate an association between nut intake and increased BMI. There is a notorious variability in macronutrient composition among nuts, although they have some consistent patterns. Nuts contain all major macronutrients: protein, carbohydrate, and fat. The total protein content is relatively high, which makes them a good source of plant protein (especially for vegetarians). Although nuts contain low amounts of some essential amino acids, this is not a nutritional concern due to the complement of protein. In addition, nuts have a low lysine:arginine ratio, which is inversely associated with the risk of developing hypercholesterolemia and atherosclerosis. Carbohydrates are the second highest macronutrient in nuts in terms of total calories provided. The fat fraction is characterized by a high amount of unsaturated fatty acids and a low content of saturated fatty acids. In conclusion, the high content in unsaturated fatty acids, the low lysine:arginine ratio, and the presence of other bioactive molecules (such as fibre, phytosterols, vitamin and other antioxidants, and minerals) make the addition of nuts to healthy diets a useful tool for the prevention of cardiovascular heart diseases.

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Nuts, body weight and insulin resistance

Reference:

Rajaram S, Sabate J. Nuts, body weight and insulin resistance. Br J Nutr. 2006 Nov;96 Suppl 2:S79-86


Abstract:

Traditionally, nuts have been considered a staple food, but because of their high energy and fat content are not considered good for body weight control or insulin sensitivity. Frequent consumption of nuts reduces the risk of coronary artery disease and type-2 diabetes and nut-enriched diets favourably alter blood lipids in normal and hypercholesterolemic individuals under controlled and free-living dietary conditions. However, whether or not frequent consumption of nuts can cause weight gain and impair insulin sensitivity is not fully understood. Review of the available data to date suggests that adding nuts to habitual diets of free-living individuals does not cause weight gain. In fact, nuts have a tendency to lower body weight and fat mass. In the context of calorie-restricted diets, adding nuts produces a more lasting and greater magnitude of weight loss among obese subjects while improving insulin sensitivity. Further studies are needed to clarify the effect of long-term (>/= year) consumption of nuts on body weight and their role in altering insulin sensitivity both in normal and type-2 diabetics. In the meantime, there is sufficient evidence to promote the inclusion of nuts as part of healthy diets.

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Effects of peanut oil consumption on appetite and food choice

Reference:

Iyer SS, et al. Effects of peanut oil consumption on appetite and food choice. Int J Obes (Lond). 2006 Apr;30(4):704-10


Abstract:

OBJECTIVE: Peanut consumption may improve lipid profiles without promoting weight gain. Both properties have been attributed to their high-unsaturated fat content. Mono and polyunsaturated fatty acids reportedly hold stronger satiety value than saturated fats and may help appetite control. This study investigated the effects of chronic peanut oil consumption on appetite and food choice.

RESEARCH METHODS AND PROCEDURES: A total of 129 healthy adults from three countries (Brazil, Ghana and US) were randomly assigned to one of four treatment arms: consumption of peanut oil, olive oil or safflower oil as 30% of individual resting energy expenditure (REE) for 8 weeks or no dietary intervention. Participants received no other dietary guidance. They completed appetite questionnaires eliciting information about hunger, fullness, desire to eat, and prospective consumption during all waking hours for 1 day at weeks 2 and 6 and for 1 or 3 days at weeks 0, 4 and 8. Diet records were completed at weeks 0, 4 and 8.

RESULTS: No differences in appetitive ratings were observed over the 8-week trial. There were no significant treatment by time interactions. Total caloric intake was significantly higher at week 8 relative to baseline (F=10.08, P<0.05). The increases for each treatment were: peanut oil=197+/-114; olive oil=237+/-121; safflower oil=274+/-90; control=75+/-71. Free-feeding intake, an index of dietary compensation, was reduced significantly at weeks 4 and 8 compared to baseline (F=9.08, P<0.00). The declines (compensation scores) were (kcals): peanut oil=-208+/-105 (46%); olive oil=-235+/-105 (50%); safflower oil=-186+/-102 (44%). There were no significant differences across countries in appetite ratings. DISCUSSION: A prior intervention with whole peanuts reported a dietary compensation score of 66% over 8 weeks, this compares to a 46% compensation score observed with peanut oil. Our data suggests that the lipid fraction in peanuts elicits a weak effect on satiety.

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Does regular walnut consumption lead to weight gain?

Reference:

Natoli S, McCoy P. A review of the evidence: nuts and body weight. Asia Pac J Clin Nutr. 2007;16(4):588-97. Review.Sabate J, Cordero-Macintyre Z, Siapco G, Torabian S, Haddad E. Does regular walnut consumption lead to weight gain? Br J Nutr. 2005 Nov;94(5):859-64. at pubmed.gov


Abstract:

Studies consistently show the beneficial effects of eating nuts, but as high-energy foods, their regular consumption may lead to weight gain. We tested if daily consumption of walnuts (approximately 12 % energy intake) for 6 months would modify body weight and body composition in free-living subjects. Ninety participants in a 12-month randomized cross-over trial were instructed to eat an allotted amount of walnuts (28-56 g) during the walnut-supplemented diet and not to eat them during the control diet, with no further instruction. Subjects were unaware that body weight was the main outcome.

Dietary compliance was about 95 % and mean daily walnut consumption was 35 g during the walnut-supplemented diet. The walnut-supplemented diet resulted in greater daily energy intake (557 kJ (133 kcal)), which should theoretically have led to a weight gain of 3.1 kg over the 6-month period. For all participants, walnut supplementation increased weight (0.4 (se 0.1) kg), BMI (0.2 (se 0.1) kg/m(2)), fat mass (0.2 (se 0.1) kg) and lean mass (0.2 (se 0.1) kg). But, after adjusting for energy differences between the control and walnut-supplemented diets, no significant differences were observed in body weight or body composition parameters, except for BMI (0.1 (se 0.1) kg/m(2)). The weight gain from incorporating walnuts into the diet (control–>walnut sequence) was less than the weight loss from withdrawing walnuts from the diet (walnut–>control sequence).

Our findings show that regular walnut intake resulted in weight gain much lower than expected and which became non-significant after controlling for differences in energy intake.

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Dietary fats, teas, dairy, and nuts: potential functional foods for weight control?

Reference:

St-Onge MP. Dietary fats, teas, dairy, and nuts: potential functional foods for weight control?Am J Clin Nutr. 2005 Jan;81(1):7-15. at pubmed.gov


Abstract:

Functional foods are similar to conventional foods in appearance, but they have benefits that extend beyond their basic nutritional properties. For example, functional foods have been studied for the prevention of osteoporosis, cancer, and cardiovascular disease. They have yet to be related to the prevention of obesity, although obesity is one of the major health problems today.

The inclusion of foods or the replacement of habitual foods with others that may enhance energy expenditure (EE) or improve satiety may be a practical way to maintain a stable body weight or assist in achieving weight loss; such foods may act as functional foods in body weight control.

Some foods that might be classified as functional foods for weight control because of their effects on EE and appetite-including medium-chain triacylglycerols, diacylglycerols, tea, milk, and nuts-are reviewed here. Only human studies reporting EE, appetite, or body weight are discussed. When studies of whole food items are unavailable, studies of nutraceuticals, the capsular equivalents of functional foods, are reviewed.

To date, dietary fats seem to be most promising and have been the most extensively studied for their effects on body weight control. However, the weight loss observed is small and should be considered mostly as a measure to prevent weight gain.

Carefully conducted clinical studies are needed to firmly ascertain the effect of tea, milk, and nuts on body weight maintenance, to assess their potential to assist in weight-loss efforts, and to ascertain dose-response relations and mechanisms of action for the 4 food types examined.

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Almonds vs complex carbohydrates in a weight reduction program

Reference:

Wien MA, Sabate JM, Ikle DN, Cole SE, Kandeel FR. Almonds vs complex carbohydrates in a weight reduction program. International Journal of Obesity & Related Metabolic Disorders: Journal of the International Association for the Study of Obesity 2003;27(11):1365-72.


Abstract:

OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the effect of an almond-enriched (high monounsaturated fat, MUFA) or complex carbohydrate-enriched (high carbohydrate) formula-based low-calorie diet (LCD) on anthropometric, body composition and metabolic parameters in a weight reduction program.

DESIGN: A randomized, prospective 24-week trial in a free-living population evaluating two distinct macronutrient interventions on obesity and metabolic syndrome-related parameters during weight reduction. SUBJECTS: In total, 65 overweight and obese adults (age: 27-79 y, body mass index (BMI): 27-55 kg/m(2)).

INTERVENTION: A formula-based LCD enriched with 84 g/day of almonds (almond-LCD; 39% total fat, 25% MUFA and 32% carbohydrate as percent of dietary energy) or self-selected complex carbohydrates (CHO-LCD; 18% total fat, 5% MUFA and 53% carbohydrate as percent of dietary energy) featuring equivalent calories and protein.

MAIN OUTCOME MEASUREMENTS: Various anthropometric, body composition and metabolic parameters at baseline, during and after 24 weeks of dietary intervention.

RESULTS: LCD supplementation with almonds, in contrast to complex carbohydrates, was associated with greater reductions in weight/BMI (-18 vs -11%), waist circumference (WC) (-14 vs -9%), fat mass (FM) (-30 vs -20%), total body water (-8 vs -1%) and systolic blood pressure (-11 vs 0%), P=0.0001-0.05. A 62% greater reduction in weight/BMI, 50% greater reduction in WC and 56% greater reduction in FM were observed in the almond-LCD as compared to the CHO-LCD intervention. Ketone levels increased only in the almond-LCD group (+260 vs 0%, P<0.02). High-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C) increased in the CHO-LCD group and decreased in the almond-LCD group (+15 vs -6%, P=0.05). Glucose, insulin, diastolic blood pressure, total cholesterol, triglycerides, low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C) and LDL-C to HDL-C ratio decreased significantly to a similar extent in both dietary interventions. Homeostasis model analysis of insulin resistance (HOMA-IR) decreased in both study groups over time (almond-LCD: -66% and CHO-LCD: -35%, P<0.0001). Among subjects with type 2 diabetes, diabetes medication reductions were sustained or further reduced in a greater proportion of almond-LCD as compared to CHO-LCD subjects (96 vs 50%, respectively) [correction]. CONCLUSIONS: Our findings suggest that an almond-enriched LCD improves a preponderance of the abnormalities associated with the metabolic syndrome. Both dietary interventions were effective in decreasing body weight beyond the weight loss observed during long-term pharmacological interventions; however, the almond-LCD group experienced a sustained and greater weight reduction for the duration of the 24-week intervention. Almond supplementation of a formula-based LCD is a novel alternative to self-selected complex carbohydrates and has a potential role in reducing the public health implications of obesity.

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Nut consumption, body weight and insulin resistance

Reference:

García-Lorda P, Megias Rangil I, Salas-Salvadó J. Nut consumption, body weight and insulin resistance. Eur J Clin Nutr. 2003;57 Suppl 1:S8-11. Review.


Abstract:

The beneficial effects of nuts on cardiovascular health are well known. However, since nuts provide a high caloric and fat content, some concern exists regarding a potential detrimental effect on body weight and insulin resistance. The current data available did not support such a negative effect of nut consumption on the short term or when nuts are included on diets that meet energy needs. Furthermore, there is some intriguing evidence that nuts can help to regulate body weight and protect against type II diabetes. This, however, still has to be proved and more research is needed to address the specific effects of nuts on satiety, energy balance, body weight and insulin resistance.

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Eating nuts linked to a healthy body weight

Reference:

Sabate, J. Nut consumption and body weight Am J Clin Nutr 2003;78(suppl): 647S-50S. Pubmed Link

A free copy of this paper can be found at www.ajcn.org


Study Type:

Review

Number of participants:

42

Participant description:

The aim of this review paper was to summarise current knowledge regarding nut consumption and body weight. The studies selected for analysis included both epidemiological and nut-feeding studies with a total of 42 included in the final review.

Review of the nut feeding studies revealed nut consumption is not associated with increased body mass index (BMI) in free-living individuals. Possible mechanisms explaining this effect include enhanced satiety, corresponding decreased intake of other foods, incomplete absorption of energy from nuts, higher energy expenditure through physical activity, reverse causation, or increased resting metabolic rate.

The epidemiological evidence suggests a negative correlation between nut consumption and BMI. Reasons for this correlation may include a tendance of overweight and obese people to avoid eating nuts because of their high fat and energy content, whereas lean individuals may have fewer reservations about consuming them. The review also highlights the positive correlation between nut consumption and physical activity.

Further research is required to determine the effects of nut consumption on energy balance, body weight, and anthropometric parameters. The author concluded that the available data demonstrate that nut consumption among free-living individuals is not associated with higher BMI when compared with non-nut consumers, despite the fact that nuts are high fat, energy-dense foods. Additionally, people on self-selected diets, who frequently consume nuts do not have higher BMIs nor do they increase body weight.

Editor’s note: This paper challenges conventional thinking that nuts, contribute to weight gain and an increased BMI. The review not only shows that the link between increased weight and nut consumption is tenuous at best but shows that including nuts in a healthy eating plan may assist the weight loss process.

Country:

USA

Abstract:

Frequent nut consumption is associated with lower rates of coronary artery disease (CAD). Also, nut-rich diets improve the serum lipid profile of participants in dietary intervention trials. However, nuts are fatty foods, and in theory their regular consumption may lead to body weight gain. Because obesity is a major public health problem and a risk factor for CAD, clinicians and policy makers ponder several questions. Will hypercholesterolemic patients advised to consume nuts gain weight? Is recommending increased nut consumption to the general population for CAD prevention sound public health advice? Epidemiologic studies indicate an inverse association between frequency of nut consumption and body mass index. In well-controlled nut-feeding trials, no changes in body weight were observed. Some studies on free-living subjects in which no constraints on body weight are imposed show a nonsignificant tendency to lower weight while subjects are on the nut diets. In another line of evidence, preliminary data indicate that subjects on nut-rich diets excrete more fat in stools. Further research is needed to study the effects of nut consumption on energy balance and body weight. In the meantime, the available cumulative data do not indicate that free-living people on self-selected diets including nuts frequently have a higher body mass index or a tendency to gain weight.

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Effects of chronic peanut consumption on energy balance and hedonics

Reference:

Alper CM, Mattes RD. Effects of chronic peanut consumption on energy balance and hedonics. International Journal of Obesity & Related Metabolic Disorders: Journal of the International Association for the Study of Obesity 2002;26(8):1129-37.


Abstract:

OBJECTIVE: To investigate the effects of chronic peanut consumption on energy balance and hedonics.

DESIGN: Thirty-week, cross-over, intervention study. Participants were provided 2113+/-494 kJ/day (505+/-118 kcal/day) as peanuts for 8 weeks with no dietary guidance (free feeding-FF), 3 weeks with instructions to add peanuts to their customary diet (addition-ADD) and 8 weeks where peanuts replaced an equal amount of other fats in the diet (substitution-SUB).

SUBJECTS: Fifteen, healthy, normal-weight (BMI of 23.3+/-1.8) adults, aged 33+/-9 y. MEASUREMENTS: Dietary intake, appetitive indices, energy expenditure, body weight and hedonics.

RESULTS: During FF, peanut consumption elicited a strong compensatory dietary response (ie subjects compensated for 66% of the energy provided by the nuts) and body weight gain (1.0 kg) was significantly lower than predicted (3.6 kg; P<0.01). When customary dietary fat was replaced with the energy from peanuts, energy intake, as well as body weight, were maintained precisely. Participants were unaware that body weight was a research focus. Resting energy expenditure was increased by 11% after regular peanut consumption for 19 weeks (P<0.01). Chronic consumption of peanuts did not lead to a decline in pleasantness or hunger ratings for peanuts nor did it lead to any hedonic shift for selected snack foods with other taste qualities during any of the three treatments. CONCLUSIONS: Despite being energy dense, peanuts have a high satiety value and chronic ingestion evokes strong dietary compensation and little change in energy balance.

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Effect on body weight of a free 76 Kilojoule (320 calorie) daily supplement of almonds for six months

Reference:

Fraser GE, Bennett HW, Jaceldo KB, Sabate J. Effect on body weight of a free 76 Kilojoule (320 calorie) daily supplement of almonds for six months. Journal of the American College of Nutrition 2002;21(3):275-83.


Abstract:

OBJECTIVE: Regular nut consumption is associated with lower rates of heart attack. However, as nuts are fatty foods, they may in theory lead to weight gain, although preliminary evidence has suggested otherwise. We tested the hypothesis that a free daily supplement (averaging 76 kJ) of almonds for six months, with no dietary advice, would not change body weight.

METHODS: Eighty-one male and female subjects completed the randomized cross-over study. During two sequential six-month periods, diet, body weight and habitual exercise were evaluated repeatedly in each subject. Almonds were provided only during the second period. The design was balanced for seasonal and other calendar trends.

RESULTS: During the almond feeding period, average body weight increased only 0.40 (kg) (p approximately 0.09). The weight change depended on baseline BMI (p = 0.05), and only those initially in the lower BMI tertiles experienced small and mainly unimportant weight gains with the almonds. We estimated that 54% (recalls) or 78% (diaries) of the extra energy from almonds was displaced by reductions in other foods. The ratio unsaturated/saturated dietary fat increased by 40% to 50% when almonds were included in the diet.

CONCLUSIONS: Incorporating a modest quantity (76 kJ) of almonds in the diet each day for six months did not lead on average to statistically or biologically significant changes in body weight and did increase the consumption of unsaturated fats. Further studies are necessary to evaluate longer term effects, especially in men.

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Moderate Fat for Long Term Weight Loss

Reference:

McManus, K., L. Antinoro, F. Sacks. A randomized controlled trial of a moderate fat, low energy diet compared with a low fat, low energy diet for weight loss in overweight adults Int J Obesity 2001;25: 1503-11. at pubmed.gov.


Study Type:

Randomized, prospective 18 month trial

Number of participants:

101

Participant description:

Overweight men and women (BMI 26.5-46kg/m2)

Country:

USA

Abstract:

Including moderate amounts of healthy fats in the diet may be a more effective way of losing weight and maintaining weight loss in the long term compared to a strict low fat diet.

This randomised controlled trial saw 101 overweight men and women (BMI 26.5-46kg/m2) follow either a low fat diet (20% energy) or a Mediterranean style moderate fat diet (35% energy) for 18 months. All participants attended a group education program run by a dietitian for 1 hour once a week. Both groups used similar teaching modules to address behavioural modification skills and physical activity. Food records of daily intake were collected weekly for analysis and suggestions and recommendations were made to enhance compliance where necessary.

At six months, similar amounts of weight had been lost in both groups (around 5kg) which represented 5% of body weight. After 18 months, 31 out of 50 participants in the moderate fat group and 30 out of 51 in the low fat group were available for measurements. Results at 18 months showed that participants in the moderate fat diet group lost an average of 4.1kg while the low fat group gained an average of 2.9kg. The overall difference in weight change between the two groups was 7.0kg. The moderate-fat group also ate more vegetables (1.2 servings more per day) and had a higher fibre intake (25g vs 19g per day) compared with the low fat group.

The authors conclude that more weight was lost in the moderate fat group due to a greater ability to adhere to the diet in the long term. Subjects reported that the diet was more tasty than traditional low fat diets they had followed and that they did not feel as though they were ‘dieting’ because they were able to include foods not traditionally part of low fat diet plans. Foods recommended in the moderate-fat diet included olive oil, peanut butter, nuts (macadamias, almonds, hazelnuts, cashews, pecans, pistachios and walnuts) and avocados.

Editor’s note: This study highlights that to assist people adhere to a weight loss program in the long term, it is worthwhile considering the inclusion of a moderate amount of fat by including a few nuts in salads, avocado on bread or a dash of olive oil on vegetables. Focusing on controlling portions and reducing overall kilojoule intake may be the key.

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