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Esche R, Müller L, Engel KH. Online LC-GC-based analysis of minor lipids in various tree nuts and peanuts. J Agric Food Chem. 2013 Nov 27;61(47):11636-44.
As information on free sterols/stanols and steryl/stanyl esters in nuts is lacking, the compositions and contents of these lipid constituents in ten different nut types were analyzed. The applied approach was based on online liquid chromatography-gas chromatography and enabled the simultaneous analysis of free sterols/stanols and individual steryl/stanyl fatty acid esters, and additionally of tocopherols and squalene. Total contents of free sterols/stanols ranged from 0.62 mg/g nut in hazelnuts to 1.61 mg/g nut in pistachios, with sitosterol as the predominant compound. Total contents of steryl/stanyl fatty acid esters were in the range of 0.11-1.26 mg/g nut, being lowest in Brazil nuts and highest in pistachios. There were considerable differences between the various nut types not only regarding the contents, but also the compositions of both classes. The levels of tocopherols were highest in pine nuts (0.33 mg/g nut); those of squalene were remarkably high in Brazil nuts (1.11 mg/g nut).