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Ho MH, Wong WH, Heine RG, Hosking CS, Hill DJ, Allen KJ. Early clinical predictors of remission of peanut allergy in children. J Allergy Clin Immunol. (29 Jan 2008)
Department of Allergy and Immunology, Royal Children’s Hospital, Melbourne, Australia.
BACKGROUND: Understanding predictors of clinical remission would assist in clinical management of peanut allergy.
OBJECTIVE: We sought to determine the early clinical predictors of peanut allergy remission using a longitudinal cohort of young children with peanut allergy.
METHODS: Consecutive patients less than 2 years of age with peanut allergy were identified on the basis of skin prick test (SPT) wheal size of 95% positive predictive value or greater. Baseline SPT responses to peanuts, tree nuts, and sesame and serum peanut-specific IgE antibody levels were documented, and follow-up studies were conducted at 1- to 2-year intervals for up to 8 years. Peanut food challenges were performed when SPT responses decreased to less than the 95% positive predictive value for peanut allergy.
RESULTS: SPT wheal diameters to peanut extract of 6 mm or greater (hazard ratio, 2.16; 95% CI, 1.23-3.786; P = .008) and peanut-specific IgE antibody of 3 kUA/L or greater (hazard ratio, 2.74; 95% CI, 1.13-6.61; P = .025) before the age of 2 years were independent predictors of persistent peanut allergy. Mean SPT wheal diameters of nonremitters increased (r = 0.31, P < .001), whereas those of remitters decreased (r = -0.26, P = .002) between 1 and 4 years of age. Twenty-one percent of young children with peanut allergy became clinically tolerant by age 5 years. CONCLUSIONS: Remission of peanut allergy can be predicted by low levels of IgE antibodies to peanut in the first 2 years of life or decreasing levels of IgE sensitization by the age of 3 years.