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Prohan M, Amani R, Nematpour S, Jomehzadeh N, Haghighizadeh MH.Total antioxidant capacity of diet and serum, dietary antioxidant vitamins intake, and serum hs-CRP levels in relation to depression scales in university male students. Redox Rep. 2014 May;19(3):133-9.
“OBJECTIVES:Oxidative stress and inflammation have been reported to be higher in subjects with depression, but it is unclear whether this is due to inadequate dietary antioxidant intake or the pathophysiology of depression. The aim of this study was to assess the association between dietary and serum antioxidant status with depression scales in young male university students.
METHODS:This research was a case-control study carried out on 60 male university students (30 students diagnosed with depression and 30 matched healthy controls). Beck Depression Inventory-II was used to assess the major depressive disorder (MDD) scales. A semi-quantitative food frequency questionnaire and 2-day 24-h recalls were used for dietary assessment. Dietary and serum total antioxidant capacity (TAC) and high-sensitive C-reactive protein (hs-CRP) concentrations were also measured.
RESULTS: MDD subjects consumed less fruits (P < 0.05), legumes (P < 0.001), nuts and seeds (P = 0.003), vitamin C (P = 0.005), beta carotene (P < 0.001), lutein, and zeaxanthin (P = 0.006) than the controls. Moreover, the depressed group had lower serum TAC levels than their controls (P < 0.05). There were no significant differences in serum hs-CRP concentrations and dietary TAC levels between the study groups. DISCUSSION: Students with depression had significantly lower intake of dietary antioxidants. However, dietary TAC and serum hs-CRP levels were not significantly different between depressed and normal university male students. Intake of foods rich in antioxidants is encouraged in male students.”