The body of evidence about nuts and cancer continues to grow, with new local and international research papers regularly published.

Key studies: systematic reviews and meta-analyses

Nut consumption and risk of cancer and type 2 diabetes: a systematic review and meta-analysis. (2015)
Nut consumption was inversely associated with the risk of total cancer, and with the risk of colorectal cancer, endometrial cancer and pancreatic cancer specifically, but not for other cancer types.

Nut consumption and risk of cardiovascular disease, total cancer, all-cause and cause-specific mortality: a systematic review and dose-response meta-analysis of prospective studies. (2016)
Higher nut intake is associated with reduced risk of cardiovascular disease, total cancer and all-cause mortality, and mortality from respiratory disease, diabetes, and infections.

Nut consumption on all-cause, cardiovascular, and cancer mortality risk: a systematic review and meta-analysis of epidemiologic studies. (2015)
Nut consumption is associated with lower risk of all-cause, CVD, and cancer mortality, but the presence of confounding factors should be taken into account when considering such findings.

Other evidence

Nut and peanut butter consumption and the risk of lung cancer and its subtypes: A prospective cohort study (2019).
Significant associations found with total nut intake and small cell carcinoma in men, and non-significant inverse trends found for other lung cancer subtypes in men, but not in women.

Food groups and risk of colorectal cancer. (2018).
For intake of nuts, a decreased risk was observed for colon cancer only.

Dietary Patterns and Colorectal Cancer Risk: A Review of 17 Years of Evidence 2000-2016. (2017).
A “healthy” pattern, generally characterized by high intake of fruits and vegetables, wholegrains, nuts and legumes, fish and other seafood, milk and other dairy products, was associated with lower CRC risk.

Dietary Protein Sources and Incidence of Breast Cancer: A Dose-Response Meta-Analysis of Prospective Studies. (2016).
There was a null association between poultry, fish, egg, nuts, total milk, and whole milk intake and breast cancer risk. Higher total red meat, fresh red meat, and processed meat intake may be risk factors for breast cancer, whereas higher soy food and skim milk intake may reduce the risk of breast cancer.

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